Sustainable Development and Resource Productivity: The Nexus Approaches

I. Setting the sceneRESCUE the Anthropocene: Urgent action for the great transformationThe world at the ultimate crossroads!The path to this is the 'Great Transformation’RESCUE the AnthropoceneSystem-PoliciesUrgent action needed — let’s hopeReferencesThe world at the ultimate crossroads: Climate change, environmental impacts, population and natural resources sufficiency in the long perspective with integrated modelsIntroduction and backgroundScope and objectivesThe scope and objective of this reportThe purpose of the WORLD7 modelMethodologyModel development methodologyModel methodologyModel descriptionResultsDiscussionConclusionsReferencesReporting resource use in GermanyResource use and sustainable developmentResource efficiency policies in GermanyReporting resource use in GermanyThe research project ‘Resource Use in Germany’The new report series: concept and designKey results of the German Resource Report 2018Domestic raw material extractionGermany’s share in global raw material tradeThe role of the economyRan' materials for consumptionOther natural resourcesResume and outlookAbbreviationsReferencesThe rise of e-mobility as a trade-off between social and ecological benefits and distributional injustice: How the socio-technical regime and externalisation prevent a profound transformation of the mobility sectorIntroductionTheoretical background — externalisation and socio-technical dynamicsExternalisation society and imperial mode of livingThe multi-level perspective developed by GeelsDrivers for and externalities of electric vehiclesExternalities of resource exploitationIncreasing demand for resourcesEnvironmentai hazardsSocial and human rights risksInsufficient monitoring and legislationDrivers for the electric automobile regimeAnalysis: externalisation as a stabilising motive of the socio-technical regimeThe landscape: wilful ignorance and climate changeThe socio-technical regime: extemalisation as stabilising mode of livingThe niches: why do efforts and discourses to overcome extemalisation not succeed?ConclusionsNotesReferencesThe quest for the holy grail: Can smart cities lead us to sustainability?IntroductionMethodologyThe Israeli race for development and technologyCities in Israel: the race to get ‘smart’Can smart solutions lead to more sustainable cities in Israel?Feasibility of smart solutions in IsraelFurther implications of technological solutionsCities as instigators for change in Israel, and their limitationsConclusionsNotesReferencesSustainable development as the ultimate target of adopting a nexus approach to resources managementIntroduction and aimResource productivity and sustainable development: Challenges and limitationsWEF-E: Mitigating trade-offs between resource productivity and sustainable resource managementThe need to integrate ecosystem service modellingThe need to integrate participatory approachesReconsidering the WEF nexus approach under other lensesConclusionsThe need to consider the social and environmental dimensions in the implementation of the nexus approach for sustainable developmentRecommendationsAbbreviationsReferencesThe water—energy nexus of Brazil’s hydropowerIntroduction: the heat is onThe evidence base: droughts, energy, and the water cycleThe water system and a water budget analysisResults of scenario analysis: high risks in the North and NortheastMore results: increasing water footprintsDiscussion: regional disparities throughout BrazilAn outlook for BrazilReferencesEducation, sustainable development and resource managementIntroduction: today’s approach to resource management in the economyThe interdependence of accelerated economic growth and fading natural resourcesThe role of education in understanding the need for a sustainable developmentThe opportunity for education systems to further sustainable developmentOutlookAbbreviationsReferencesII. Core aspects of an integrated resource policySystemic analysis of the nexus of greenhouse gas emissions and material use in the energy sectorThe starting pointSystemic approachesSystem analysisQualitative modellingThe nexus of greenhouse gas emissions and material useUnderstanding the systemUnderstanding the central loopsThe anthropogenic stock and recyclingThe nexus of energy and resource useThe consumption and production loopDiscussion and consequences for policy designList of abbreviationsReferencesWrong memes: Organic farming and battery electric vehiclesSystemic contextMemes and emotional efficacyDemographic change, digitisation, climate change and the increase of wealthOrganic farmingBattery-powered electric mobilityThe battle of interestsAbbreviationsReferencesWhat’s going on abroad?: Monitoring international resource policiesIntroduction: the relevance of resource efficiency and objective of the research project ‘MoniRess’Monitoring approachResource efficiency as part of overarching strategies and actorsApproaches in the area of productionApproaches in the area of consumptionApproaches in the field of recycling and circular economySummary of findings, conclusion and outlookOutlookList of abbreviationsReferencesPathways to a resource-efficient and greenhouse-gas-neutral GermanyIntroductionGoal and scope of this projectScenario storylinesGreenEe1 and Ee2 (Germany — resource-efficient and greenhouse gas neutral — energy-efficiency)GreenLate (late transition)GreenMe (material efficiency)GreenLife (lifestyle changes)GreenSupreme (minimising future GHG-emissions and raw material consumption)MethodologyResultsRecommendationsAbbreviationsNoteReferencesResource use in a post-fossil green GermanyIntroductionStrategies and measures to reduce resource use in green GermanyOverall and structural changes with effects on resource demandSubstitutionRecyclingFurther resource efficiencyThe entire primary and secondary material consumption in the Green pathwaysConsumption of selected metals in the green pathwaysDiscussion and conclusionList of abbreviationsReferencesVertical integration in a multi-level governance system using the example of the German Resource Efficiency ProgrammeIntroductionThe German federal system and the present structure of ProgRessConstruction of the federal system in GermanyStructure of the German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess)ProgRess implementation mechanismsProgRess evaluationLänder: responsibilities and influence on action areas of ProgRessMunicipalities: responsibilities and influence on action areas of ProgRessDeficits and potentials of the vertical structure of ProgRessPolicy development processContent and representationProgRess implementationRecommendations for better vertical integration of the resource efficiency policy in GermanyBetter structural integration of the Länder and municipalitiesAdvancement of the content of ProgRess IIIIncrease the awareness level of ProgRessIncentives for relevant local stakeholdersGeneral conclusions and outlookReferencesA strategy to increase the resource efficiency of renewable energy technologiesIntroductionEnergy transformation process and potential demand for raw materialsMaterial efficiency measures in solar cells and novel conceptsReducing the demand for rare earth elements in wind turbinesSecondary production of metals via recyclingTowards a sustainable energy system with efficient resource utilisationAcknowledgementAbbreviationsReferencesGoverning critical infrastructure in digital futuresCritical infrastructureAnthropocene thinkingGoverning good governanceChoosing futuresDesirable AlBeyond critical infrastructureReferencesThe energy transition in Deventer: A Hanseatic approachDeventer: a culture of cooperation since Hanseatic timesA brief history of co-operationA brief history of sustainabilityTowards a new strategyGoalsTwo tasksStrategy on the transition of heat supplyGeneral approachWhere do we start?What source of heat do we choose?Who is responsible for the new heat infrastructure?Who is financing the transformation?Concise Deventer heat transition strategyStrategy on the transition of production of electricityPolitical debateEnergy numbersSpatial consequencesThe process of realisationConclusionReferencesIII. Case studies of existing solutionsNatural resources as common goodsIntroductionDefinition of natural resourcesDefinition of commonsDevelopment of a common good management conceptDesign principles for the assessment of management approachesCase study: the water framework directive — an instrument for managing global water resources?Theoretical assumption of a commoning processSummary of the analysisReferencesSustainable resource output: Towards an approach to a multidimensional environmental assessment of biomass productionIntroductionThe need for monitoring of the use of biomass resourcesLimits to the concept of resource efficiencyMethodsThe concept of sustainable resource outputCase study descriptionsSystem definitionScenario developmentResultsInterpretation and discussionConclusionsList of abbreviationsReferencesMore resource efficiency in production and products: Digitalisation supports industry and tradesIntroductionThe Effizienz-Agentur NRW consulting offer — guide to more resource efficiencyNeed for actionInitial consultationSolutionsConservation of resources and digitalisation = ‘Resource Efficiency 4.0’Resource Efficiency 4.0 — Digitalisation as a toolOperational areas of activityIllustrative case studiesPractical example 1 (industry: plastics)Practical example 2 (industry: metal)Practical example 3 (industry: metal)SummaryReferencesEight tons of lifestyle: Monitoring a sustainable material footprint for households in Germany and the worldBackgroundPrevious studies and their limitationsChallenges and solutionAdvantages of the approachData requirements for environmental dataOutlook (pilot study)DiscussionAbbreviationsNotesReferencesC like clever and cycle: Without a smart and systematic conception of the metal industry, product labelling and an indicator system, nothing will happenIntroductionRequirements for circular managementThe role of the metal industryThe role of eco-designThe role of IndicatorsSpecific role: DigitalisationConclusionAbbreviationsReferencesThe nexus of procurement and sustainability: Reflection of the limits and opportunities of product labels, using the example of the Forest Stewardship CouncilIntroductionCertification and labels in a changing environmentThe concept of the FSC systemNew FSC dimensions in processing and tradeChanges in production and trade through the FSC approachProminent examples of transforming markets through demandFSC’s impacts on the groundThe middle of the nexus: perceptions of consumers on sustainable production and labelled productsThe certification dilemmaBeyond the dilemma — discussion of possible solutions and recommendationsRole for allRole of governmentsRole of the corporate sectorRole of the mediaRole of NGOsRole of existing sustainability labelsAbbreviationsReferencesThe role of biomass use in a defossilised and resource-efficient worldIntroductionBiomass with low risk for land-use changeBiomass feedstock cultivated on unused landBiomass feedstock cultivated on surplus landBiomass potentials from biogenic waste and residuesTypes of biogenic waste and residuesQuantities of biogenic waste and residues in GermanyAdditional bioenergy potential from biogenic waste and residues in GermanyMatching bioenergy supply and energy demand in GermanyThe role of biomass in forward-looking scenario studiesConclusionsAbbreviationsReferencesIV. Pioneering innovationsBig, environmentally friendly eventsIntroduction and objective of the articleMethodologyDiscussion: an eco-friendly event through environmental management at the Kirchentag FestivalFramework for environmental managementPrinciples of environmental management of the Kirchentag FestivalImplementation of measuresCatering — consuming organic and fairly traded productsMobility — the use of sustainable modes to and at the FestivalEnergy-split and remaining emissionsSustainable procurement of products and servicesWaste reduction and recyclingResponsible water consumptionEnvironmental communication and employee trainingsKirchentag adapting to climate change-related weather extremesPerpetuated environmental standards applied by the Kirchentag FestivalThe results of environmental controlling of the Kirchentag FestivalOutlook: conclusion and recommendationsList of abbreviationsNotesReferencesThe Kwawu resilient entrepreneurial ecosystems: A complex adaptive systems approach to achieving the Sustainable Development GoalsIntroductionThe Kwahu of GhanaLiterature reviewEntrepreneurial ecosystemsResilience and entrepreneurial ecosystemsComplexity systems and entrepreneurship, and emergenceMethodFindings and discussionsEnabling entrepreneurial cultureAn interdependent learning cycleSocial inclusionContributions to sustainable management and development theory and practiceAcknowledgementsReferencesExploring the possibility of a meat taxThe problemWhat can be calculated and monetisedTaxationConclusionAbbreviationsReferencesFacilitating sustainable dietary choices for positive nutritional and environmental outcomesIntroductionDefining sustainable dietsNutritional demandsEnvironmental demandsSocietal demandsIntegration of technologiesGlobal Food DatabaseScientific tools to measure impactEarth IndexIntelligence Recommendation, Identification and Categorisation Engine (IRICE)Pathway to sustainable impactRecommendationsAbbreviationsReferencesEnvironmental systems innovation in ancient India with Factor X components as revealed in old Tamil ManuscriptsIntroductionMethodologyResults and discussionKey findingsRecommendationReferences
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