British-born Black African Youth and Educational Social Capital

Background and contextWhy focus on Ethiopian and Eritrean second-generation youth’s educational experienceThe research studyMethodology and data collectionParticipants' characteristicsStructure of the bookNotesBibliographyTheoretical frameworkA theoretical framework towards racial and linguistic minority children’s academic failureTraditional social capital theories as trajectories of minority students’ school failureColeman’s theory of family-based social capital as promoting academic achievementBourdieu and social class reproduction theoryOpportunity gap explanatory framework in minority students’ academic failureCritics of the social capital conceptThe relational dimension of social capital and the process of minority academic failureSchool structure failure or successEnglish as an additional language (EAL) programmes as an exclusionary practiceThe definition of first languageTeacher deficit thinking as an informal practiceConclusionHow does language policy structure opportunity?NotesBibliographyEthiopians and Eritreans in LondonIntroductionEthiopian historical backgroundEritrean historical backgroundEthiopian and Eritrean immigration to the U.K.The background of the second wave of Ethiopian and Eritrean refugeesThe formation of first-generation Ethiopian and Eritrean identityEthiopian and Eritrean populations in BritainShared concernsPost-migration and settlement issuesWhere do they settle?The traditional Ethiopian and Eritrean familyEthiopian and Eritrean men and womenEthiopian and Eritrean parenting practicesEducation and parental involvementParental involvementEthiopian and Eritrean traditionSingle mothers and educationMothers’ involvement in educationEthiopian and Eritrean cultural influence and learning disability and autismBritish-born children with autismCultural differences in non-verbal communicationEritrean community organisationsConclusionNotesBibliographySocial Capital within school“Triple segregation”IntroductionHow do British-born Ethiopian and Eritrean youth identify themselves?- and first-generation ethnic identificationNegative stereotypes of Black AfricansWithin-school segregationResidential segregationLack of a sense of belonging in schoolAcademic segregation within schoolsThe term “English as an additional language (EAL)” as an institutional markerSocial segregation within schoolsLow expectations of East African studentsAchieving their dreamsConclusionDo demographics determine destiny?NotesBibliographyClassroom-based social capitalIntroductionClassroom practices processInstitutional practicesPrimary school experienceTransition to secondary schoolSecondary school experiencesInstructional pedagogyLack of quality of instruction receivedUnqualified teachersLack of responsive teaching practicesResponsive teaching practice mattersRelational instructionLack of caring teacher relationshipsBlack boys and teachersBlack boys and school exclusions: Access to learning opportunityWhat Academic resources are availableTransition to collegeLack of participation in rigorous and college-preparatory coursesLack of information and guidance on post-secondary school educationWhy Black young men are dropping out of higher educationConclusionOpportunity gaps in learningHow schools structure failure for linguistic minority studentsNotesBibliographyParental involvement as social CapitalIntroductionHow do second-generation children define parental involvement?Academic-specific involvementProviding academic assistanceSecondary school and paren tal involvement: Homework assistanceNon-academic supportMoral support and verbal encouragement“Being there for us” as a predictor of parental social capitalIndirect parental involvement through payment for tuitionSupplementary schoolsFree supplementary schoolsAcademie supportHomework clubSupplementary schools and homework club as safe places“Informal institutional agents4” as bonding social capitalHome-school relationshipsHow do Africans define parental involvement?Parents’ meetings and passive interactionParent-teacher relationshipsLack of parent-teacher relationshipsTreating each family as unique individualsAfrican knowledge and perceptions of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and other learning disabilitiesBlack Africans as “Model Black” and special educational needsLack of awareness about autismLack of information about ASDsLack of awareness of available special education servicesAfrican parent-teacher relationshipsConclusion‘One size does not fit all parents’NotesBibliographyImplication for policy and practiceTheoretical insights into the racial dimension of Black African social capitalBlack African social capitalTheoretical insightsImplications for policymakersDisaggregate data as the first step to understanding the needs of Black African studentsLocal authorities and schools should collect ethnic-specific dataTake steps to address the “triple segregation” of Black African students’ experiences within schoolsEnsure all students have equal access to high-quality learning opportunitiesFirst language definitionEnsure access to equitable educationAccess to early years’ educationFocus on secondary- and post-secondary-school transitionSecondary-school transitionSecondary school and the opportunity to learnFocus on transition from secondary school to collegeConsider implications for teachersEarly intervention for struggling studentsEstablish home-school partnershipsConclusionNotesBibliography
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