Key fields and links of industrial structure adjustment
According to previous empirical studies, the most important areas of concern for the impact of GHGs on various sectors are: the energy sector, the industrial sector, and the transportation sector. The three sectors account for the national economy. More than 97% of GHG emissions from fossil energy are consumed in the sector.
From the perspective of the direction and size of the various factors affecting GHG emissions, the expansion of production scale is the main cause of the increase in GHG emissions, and the adjustment of industrial structure and the improvement of energy efficiency have played a positive role in mitigating GHGs. The industry, the optimization of energy consumption structure and the carbon emission coefficient effect also inhibited the growth of GHGs to some extent.
The energy sector, especially the electric power and heat production industries, is one of the main sources of GHG emissions. The expansion of its output scale has led to an increase in GHG emissions, and its annual decline in the proportion of the economy has slowed down CO, emissions. In addition, energy intensity effect and energy structure effects within the department are also greatly affected; therefore, the structural adjustment of the energy sector is mainly concentrated in three aspects.
First, we must focus on controlling the scale and speed of power production expansion mitigating GHG emissions from energy production and conversion processes. Under the premise of ensuring economic production and energy use, rationally arrange new investment to avoid redundant construction. New energy projects must meet the relevant access standards for energy conservation and environmental protection, and small power plants and small coal mines that do not comply with national industrial policies. Wait for the shutdown and transfer to eliminate backward production capacity.
The second is to vigorously optimize the energy structure. On the basis of protecting the ecology, we will develop hydropower in an orderly manner, actively promote nuclear power construction on the basis of ensuring safety, and appropriately develop small-scale distributed power sources using natural gas and coal-bed methane as fuel, and use biomass to generate electricity, biogas, biomass solid fuel and liquid fuel. Focusing on the development and utilization of biomass energy, we will develop renewable energy such as wind energy, solar energy, biomass energy and geothermal energy according to local conditions.
The third is to continue to improve energy efficiency. Vigorously develop high-efficiency and clean power generation technologies such as supercritical units and large combined cycle units with a single machine of 600,000 kW and above, develop cogeneration and combined heat and power gas technologies to improve power generation efficiency and strengthen the power grid construction, using advanced transmission, transformation, distribution technology and equipment to reduce energy consumption.
The industrial sector is also the main source of GHG emissions, and its most influential sectors include: metal products, non-metal products and petroleum processing, while equipment manufacturing has low emissions and high output; production scale expansion is the main factor leading to an increase in industrial CO, emissions, and the improvement of energy efficiency within the industrial sector and the adjustment of sectoral structure are the two main ways to reduce GHG emissions. The improvement of energy structure and the low carbonization of fuel carbon emission coefficient have a relatively small contribution to industrial CO, emissions. Therefore, the structural adjustments to the industrial sector are mainly concentrated in three areas.
First, we must vigorously curb the excessive growth of heavy-duty industries with high energy consumption and high emissions. Especially for steel, non-ferrous metals, petrochemicals, building materials and other high-energy-consumption and high-emission departments, we must strengthen existing industrial policies, strict market access standards for high-energy-consuming industries, improve energy-saving and environmental protection thresholds, and adopt export tax rebates. Measures such as tariffs will curb the export of “two high and one capital” (high energy consumption, high emission, resource type) products, adjust the scale of high energy consumption and high pollution industries, and reduce the proportion of high energy consumption and high pollution industries; industrial policies, severely polluting ironmaking, steelmaking, cement and chemical production capacity.
The second is to accelerate the development of equipment manufacturing and other high-tech industries. In particular, the development of advanced manufacturing industries with the focus on revitalizing the equipment manufacturing industry, encourage the use of high-tech and advanced applicable technologies to transform and upgrade the manufacturing industry, accelerate the development of high-tech industries and information industries, and increase the proportion of “low-carbon” industries in industrial development.
In addition, it is necessary to promote cleaner production and circular economy models in the industrial sector to improve resource utilization. In accordance with the principles of reduction, reuse, and resource utilization, we will vigorously promote the construction of comprehensive recycling and reuse systems for resources, and focus on promoting technological transformation of energy conservation and consumption reduction in industries such as iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, electric power, petrochemicals, construction, coal, building materials, and papermaking. For metallurgy, building materials, chemical and other industries, strengthen measures such as nitrous oxide emission control to control GHG emissions from industrial production processes.