Improved Productivity

In simple terms, innovations from Industry 4.0 allow you to do more with less. In other words, by allocating your resources more cost-effectively and efficiently, you can generate more and faster. Because of improved system control and automated/ semi-automated decision-making, the production lines would also experience less

Benefits of adopting Industry 4.0 [2]

FIGURE 19.3 Benefits of adopting Industry 4.0 [2].

downtime. In truth, as your facility moves closer to being an Industry 4.0 smart plant, the general overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) will increase [43].

Improved Efficiency

As a result of the technologies associated with Industry 4.0, multiple areas of your production line can become more productive. Less computer downtime as well as the ability to make more goods and make them faster are some of these efficiencies mentioned above. Faster batch changeovers, automatic track-and-trace procedures and automated reporting are other examples of improved performance as shown in Figure 19.3. As well as business decision-making and more, new product introductions (NPIs) are also becoming more successful [44].

Increased Knowledge Sharing

Conventional manufacturing plants run in silos. Individual facilities, including individual machines inside a facility, are silos. This results in insufficient cooperation or sharing of information. Industry 4.0 technologies allow connectivity between your manufacturing lines, business processes and departments regardless of location, time zone, network or any other factor. This allows information gained by a sensor on a computer in one plant to be disseminated in the company, for example [43].


  • • Interconnectivity
  • • Data Transparency
  • • Specialized help
  • • Decentralized Decisions


This refers to the capacity of machinery and related components to communicate and interact through the Internet with individuals as shown in Figure 19.4.

Data Transparency

This theory requires that, through the configuration of digital data into sensor data, information systems should be able to construct virtual copies of the physical world. Raw sensor data must be aggregated with compatible background data in order for this to be accomplished [43].

Principles and goals of Industry 4.0 [43]

FIGURE 19.4 Principles and goals of Industry 4.0 [43].

Specialized Help

This concerns the capacity of systems to help people through systematic aggregation and visualization of data for better decision-making and rapid problem solving. Technical assistance also focuses on the capacity of cyber-enabled systems to support human resources physically by performing different activities that are deemed time-consuming, dangerous and exhausting to individuals [43].

Decentralized Decisions

This concept applies to the ability of cyber-enabled systems to make decisions and execute their dedicated functions independently. Only in the case of intervention or conflict with the intended objectives, which may cause those activities to be performed at other levels, may this be modified. In versatile manufacturing environments, as in industries dealing with mass production, the definition is characterized by greater customization of goods [3].


Blockchain is a booming technology that boosts business and industry verticals. Thus, blockchain may theoretically improve cyber-defence through consensus structures that deter malicious practices and identify data manipulation based on its characteristics such as data protection, suitability, organizational stability, immutability, and transparency. Hackers often rely on edge machines such as routers and switches to reach the overall network. In recent days, hackers also find it easier to attack through devices such as smart thermostats, CCTVs and doorbells too [37].

Thus blockchain technology can be used to prevent attacks on those devices. Blockchain technology can provide those IoT devices with the “smarts” to make security decisions without depending on a central authority or administrator. The costs of detecting bad data and rooting out frauds are significant regardless of the industry. Algorithms that are used to fight fraud are largely effective in detecting inconsistencies but are more costly. Data that is filtered and stored through a decentralized blockchain technology tends to be more trustworthy, more securable, and 100% correct as it undergoes a lot of verification process. Thus, the threshold of data veracity is higher when using blockchain technology [41].


The effect of blockchain is becoming more prevalent as factories across the world become increasingly interconnected. The factory of the future, including equipment manufacturers and distribution firms, covers a whole network of devices, components, goods and value chain participants. Today, more than ever before, producers face the task of exchanging information safely inside and outside factory walls [7]. A manufacturer must perform a systematic evaluation to figure out the best location for blockchain, which starts with defining the current business challenges and potential needs of the company. Subsequently, it will then analyze how it uses the

Blockchain-based manufacturing model

FIGURE 19.5 Blockchain-based manufacturing model.

technology to mitigate the pressure points of the factory and satisfy its needs. Equipped with a good understanding of the opportunities and challenges it faces, the manufacturer may then select the most suitable alternative from the available technology solutions. Essentially, as the name implies, blockchain is a chain of blocks. There is digital information (the block) stored in a public database instead of a physical chain. It is applied to the blockchain when a block stores new data. In order to provide substantial value for industrial businesses, blockchain-powered applications will seamlessly aggregate all of the knowledge and help unlock the full potential of other emerging technologies, such as virtual reality, IoT and 3D printing [36]. Each square of information incorporates a timestamp, cryptographic hash and the past square’s hash, which makes a chain of exchanges all connected to a unique square as shown in Figure 19.5. It is clear that the ability of blockchain- powered technologies to build value by enabling companies to solve difficult issues is clear. Blockchains can improve transparency across supply chains, monitor key staff identity and credentials, and create more streamlined functionality of audit and enforcement [42].

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