Conclusion

The analysis of the two recent judgments demonstrates a certain inclination to a common approach of the two fields of law; an approach which can be characterized by the regulatory technique of an inverted pyramid, where the blacklists serve to clear markets, where a common approach is defined by setting differences between standardized and non-standardized practices aside, where individual redress stands side by side with the collective action for injunction, where res judicata is extended in unfair terms, where a minimum of standards in unfair commercial practices can be recognised; last but not least where courts are ex officio requested to test the possible extension of res judicata.

It will still require a series of further preliminary references before the importance of Invitel and Perenicova for the interplay of the law on unfair terms and the law on unfair commercial practices becomes tangible. Both decisions open a new chapter in the discussion about the arrangement of the individual-collective legal redress in the interplay of the law on unfair terms and the law on unfair commercial practices. It is to be hoped that consumer agencies and consumer associations will participate actively in the process of Europeanization instead of restricting themselves to free-riding or mere defensive strategies.

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