Routledge International Handbook of Research Methods in Digital Humanities

IntroductionCollaboration: Problems and opportunities (or a problematic opportunity)Research methods or research methodologies?Computation, convergence, remediationComputation and connectionConvergence and collaborationRemediation and transmissionConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesSECTION I. Computation and connectionGET SOME PERSPECTIVE: Using physical objects in the Glucksman Gallery to capture interdisciplinary stories of online teaching and learningIntroductionContext for this studyThe Glucksman Gallery at UCCSite of investigation: Art and the Glucksman Gallery—Why?Arts in education pedagogies at UCC: A history(embedding Project Zero at UCC)(establishing visual thinking strategies at UCC)(visual practices as metacognitive approaches to learning and teaching)-12 (documenting uses of Project Zero in higher education)-2014 (VTS as a tool for professional enhancement)-2017: Award-winning art and medicine linkages(taking Project Zero into non-traditional learning communities)Administrators vs. educators: the tensions, dilemmas and challenges in online teachingFlexibility and inclusion in online learningWhat is lost and what is gained: multi-sensory experiences and virtual learningConclusionReferencesDIGITAL APTITUDE: Finding the right questions for dance studiesIntroductionTrajectories from the intersection between dance and digitalChoreographic objectsMovement on the MoveAnnotation: Collecting dance data from practiceMapping touringConclusionNotesReferences(CRITICAL) ARTISTIC RESEARCH AND DHPrefaceIntroductionMultiply stranded genealogiesRemediations as generators of aestheticsHands-on artistry and digital shadowsFrom individual virtuosity to wider platforms-and backInvisible powers: Making sense of dataCritical thinking as ‘grit in the machine’Conclusion: An appeal for the arts in DH as providers of deep diversityAcknowledgementsNotesReferences“A PICTURE PAINTS A THOUSAND WORDS”: Hand-drawn network maps as a means to elicit data on digitally mediated social relationsIntroductionHand-drawn network maps: Tapping into arts-based research techniques to uncover the quality of digitally mediated social tiesData collection procedureAnalytical approachAnalysis of the Hand-drawn network mapShapes: The “Bubble”Symbols: “Hashtags” as facilitators of interactionColours: Activating digitally mediated social tiesConclusionsReferencesMULTI-SITED ETHNOGRAPHY AND DIGITAL MIGRATION RESEARCH: Methods and challengesIntroductionMulti-sited ethnography and migration research: Definition and approachesSites and fieldworksPeopleMulti-sited ethnography in digital migration researchResearch designOnline forum analysis and online participant observationInformed consentAnonymity and confidentiality of dataInterviewsAccess and informed consentTrustParticipant observation and offline interviewsLimitations and later shift to FacebookConclusionsNoteReferencesMODELLING AND NETWORKS IN DIGITAL HUMANITIES 0yvind EideModelling with networksModelsGraphsNetworksTreesVisualisation and visual thinkingNetwork fixationNetworks in useActor-oriented networksNetworks in textual studiesDictionaries and word-netNetworks and mapsConceptual modelling and ontologiesNeural networksCommon practice-based patternsNotesReferencesCHARTING CULTURAL HISTORY THROUGH HISTORICAL BIBLIOMETRIC RESEARCH: Methods; concepts; challenges; resultsIntroductionTypes of historical bibliometric researchData and data sourcesDescribing books: Bibliographic data models and taxonomic descriptionActors, readers and networksDealing with incomplete, inconsistent and poor-quality dataShort-cuts: OCR and machine learningUser interfaces: Publishing and presenting historical bibliometric dataLinked open data, methods, models and conceptual possibilitiesNotesReferencesMANAGE YOUR DATA: Information management strategies for DH practitionersIntroductionTerminology we can use while managing DH researchTerminology and contextKnowledge organizationInformation managementDigital curationResearch data managementData management, research practices and research methodsFacilitating communication and collaborationEngaging with colleagues and clientsOngoing communication and collaborationSustaining research, improving practiceAnalysisRecommendations for professionalsNotesReferencesTHE LIBRARY IN DIGITAL HUMANITIES: Interdisciplinary approaches to digital materialsIntroductionDigital humanities in the libraryHierarchies: Where is LIS in the digital humanities?What does it mean to be an interdisciplinary field?Information studies, and values-based methodsThe methodological importance of user studies in the digital humanitiesConclusionNoteReferencesSECTION II. Convergence and collaborationHUMANS IN THE LOOP: Epistemology and method in King’s Digital LabIntroductionThe sociology of the laboratoryInfrastructure: Human and technicalKey methods: Design, build, maintain and monitorDesignBuildMaintainMonitorConclusionNotesReferencesTHE WARBURG ICONOGRAPHIC DATABASE: From relational tables to interoperable metadataIntroductionThe Warburg Institute and iconographyThe Warburg Iconographic DatabaseThe move to interoperabilityTwo approaches to interoperabilityStage one: The data modelStage two: Serializing the modelThe next stepsConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesINFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES, INFRASTRUCTURE AND RESEARCH METHODS IN THE DIGITAL HUMANITIESIntroductionDigital research methods in the humanitiesCollaboration and the co-production of scholarshipDigital labsProject-based collaborationICTs and infrastructureThe limits ofinfrastructureResearch methodsFindingsResearch methods used in papersResearch topicsData types and an unexpected findingDiscussion and implicationsProject managementInfrastructural potentialConcusionAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesMAPPING SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL LANDSCAPES: Geovisualization as methodIntroduction: From manual cartographies to digital geographiesThe Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database—SEADMapping linguistic landscapesMekhaneGeneral considerations regarding the visualizations for geospatial analysisConclusionNotesReferencesGIS FOR LANGUAGE STUDYIntroductionGeographical modelling of linguistic dataData and data managementData types, data acquisition and spatial referencingData quality issuesMethods and applicationsStatistical approachesData visualisationConclusionReferencesSECTION III. Remediation and transmission(DIGITAL) RESEARCH PRACTICES AND RESEARCH DATA: Case studies in communities of sociolinguistics and environmental humanities scholarsIntroductionBackgroundAcademic identitiesResearch communitiesResearch infrastructuresfor research communitiesScholarly practicesData management within scholarly practicesMethodologySurvey methodologyInterviews to form case studiesAnalysis of dataResults of surveyAbout the respondentsResponses by broad disciplineResponses by career levelIdentifying and interacting with research communitiesCommunications within communitiesConducting research and data managementCase studiesCase study—sociolinguistsResearch communities and self-identifyResearch practices and dataCommunications among research communitiesInteraction with research infrastructuresCase study—Environmental humanistsResearch communities and self-identifyResearch practices and dataCommunications among research communitiesInteraction with research infrastructuresDiscussionSelf-Identity, communities and communicationCommunity-based research practices in data management and citationConclusionNotesReferencesCOMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR SEMANTIC ANALYSIS OF HISTORICAL TEXTSAn interdisciplinary contribution to semantic changeThree reasons why semantics in historical texts is difficultWhy is semantics so hard?The complications of historical textsThe inaccessibility of semanticsImpact of historical semantics researchInterdisciplinary pitfallsQualitative studies and computational studiesInterdisciplinary gapsBridging the gap between disciplinesRelevant research questionsSetting the right expectations in evaluationDevelop new paradigms for the evaluation and criticism of computational models for lexical semantic changeA systematic approach to analysis and data annotationInvolving humanistic expertiseNew computational methodsConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesENCODING AND ANALYSIS, AND ENCODING AS ANALYSIS, IN TEXTUAL EDITINGIntroduction: Textual scholarship, encoding, and new modes of readingUsing EpiDoc to edit classical textsEncoding and analysis in modern English textsConclusion: Encoding as analysisNotesReferencesOPENING THE ‘BLACK BOX’ OF DIGITAL CULTURAL HERITAGE PROCESSES: Feminist digital humanities and critical heritage studiesIntroductionGender and digital humanitiesGender and heritageDigital heritage as bridgeMethodologiesConclusionNotesReferencesHOW TO USE SCALAR IN THE CLASSROOMIntroductionAn instruction sheet for recommended practicesConsidering Scalar’s useA common design language for the duration of a termPlanning a termEverything that is done in Scalar is a learning activityCollections-based research (CBR)In-class labsThe Scalar book as documentation of collective processCourse scaffoldingUse live examples from the course materialDetailed assignment examplesIncorporate Scalar into the day-to-day activities of a classReading facesMoving picturesLessons from the case studyTransferable principles for Scalar-based assignment designAppendix 1: Week-by-week in-class lab session outline for SPAN 320Appendix 2: Ekphrasis sample assignment details in stagesAppendix 3: Moving Images Sample Assignment Details in StagesDISCOVERING DIGITAL HUMANITIES METHODS THROUGH PEDAGOGYIntroductionBackgroundCreating the corpusThe corpusApproaching the introductory courseThe undergraduate syllabiCo-instruction and guest speakersCourse design and the projectTopics of instructionThe graduate syllabiProfessionalization and the role of the projectLibraries and librariansComparing the corpus with historical studiesModes of studyTopics of studyAlignment of syllabi with DH valuesRelationship between teaching and researchInstructor backgroundConclusionAppendix A: Topics covered in syllabiNotesReferencesCOURSE DESIGN IN THE DIGITAL HUMANITIESMore and MooreDesigning backwardMethodologyCollaborationBricolageNotesReferencesCROWDSOURCING IN CULTURAL HERITAGE: A practical guide to designing and running successful projectsIntroductionCrowdsourcing in cultural heritageKey conceptual and research frameworksFundamental concepts in cultural heritage crowdsourcingWhy do cultural heritage institutions support crowdsourcing projects?Why do people contribute to crowdsourcing projects?Turning crowdsourcing ideas into realityPlanning crowdsourcing projectsDefining ‘success’ for your projectManaging organisational impactChoosing source collectionsPlanning workflows and data re-usePlanning communications and participant recruitmentFinal considerations: practical and ethical ‘reality checks’Developing and testing crowdsourcing projectsDesigning the ‘onboarding’ experienceTask designDocumentation and tutorialsQuality control: validation and verification systemsRewards and recognitionRunning crowdsourcing projectsLaunching a projectThe role of participant discussionOngoing community engagementPlanning a graceful exitThe future of crowdsourcing in cultural heritageAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesE-LEARNING IN THE DIGITAL HUMANITIES: Leveraging the Internet for scholarship, teaching and learningE-Learning in the digital humanities: Leveraging the Internet for scholarship, teaching, and learningRise in e-LearningSkepticism about e-LearningI: Pedagogy grounded in theorySocial cognitive theorySocial constructivist theorySocial identity theory and communities of practiceTheoretical predictions regarding online learning quality and professional identity developmentII: Putting theory into practice in digital humanities online classroomsScenario one: Promoting motivation and active learning in an undergraduate level online courseCourse contextAudio/visual digital presentation assignmentMultimedia website assignmentScenario two: Fostering a community of practice in a graduate level online programSynchronous communicationLearning cohortsAuthentic, experiential learningConclusionNotesReferencesEYE TRACKING FOR THE EVALUATION OF DIGITAL TOOLS AND ENVIRONMENTS: New avenues for research and practiceIntroductionAdoption and use of digital humanities tools and environmentsUser studies in digital humanitiesEye tracking: The basicsPossible applications of eye tracking in digital humanitiesEye tracking for usabilityEye tracking for evaluating digital tools’ perceived complexityEye tracking, digital tools and environments, and accessibilityEye tracking, digital tools and environments, and universal designUniversal design and mobile eye trackingUniversal design and expertise levelsConclusionReferencesWHAT ETHICS CAN OFFER THE DIGITAL HUMANITIES AND WHAT THE DIGITAL HUMANITIES CAN OFFER ETHICSIntroductionWhat’s the point of ethics?Research ethics (A brief history)The challenge of ethics in DHData collectionData useData sharingDisclosive ethicsConclusionReferencesINTELLECTUAL PROPERTY GUIDELINES FOR THE DIGITAL HUMANITIESIntellectual property terms and conceptsCopyrightFair use/fair dealingFair use/fair dealing in the digital humanitiesThe public domainCreative CommonsSeeking permissionArchival donor agreementsDigital rights managementDigitization projectsPreservation and access in archives and librariesIntellectual property for the digital humanities in practiceIntellectual property summary of best practicesReferencesPRACTICING GOODWILL ETHICS WITHIN DIGITAL RESEARCH METHODSPracticing goodwill ethics within digital research methodsFrom the Nuremberg Code to the Belmont Report: A brief history of research ethicsBrit the fanwriter v. Dr Kelley the fan researcherDeveloping goodwill and vulnerability in my own research ethicsVisualising ethical design of digital research methodsConclusion: Practicing goodwill and doing vulnerability in methodological designNotesReferences
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