New Directions in Japan’s Security: Non-U.S. Centric Evolution

The puzzleFrom centering toward decenteringCore research questionStructure of the bookNotesReferencesI. Non­-American directions in defense policyExplaining: decentering and recentering in security strategyIntroductionDefining centering and decenteringUnderlying motivations for decenteringExplanations for Japan’s decenteringConclusionsNotesReferencesCentered on the fight within: the inward­looking nature of the Japanese debate on constitutional reinterpretation with a diluted US focusIntroductionArticle 9 and the use of force before AbeWhat is CSD for?Pacifism as legalism in the debate on CSDBusiness as usual?ConclusionNoteReferencesLifting the ban on defense industrial production cooperation with non­US partnersIntroductionJapanese grand strategy and the role of arms production and transfersJapan’s indigenous defense production model as form of hedgingJapan’s shifting grand strategy and defense production: indigenization through internationalization?Japan’s breaching of the arms export ban: maintaining domestic production base through international collaborationJapan’s new arms transfer partnersJapan’s emerging arms transfer strategy: opportunities and limitationsNotesReferencesII. Diversifying security partnersJapan’s ‘special’ strategic partnership with Australia: ‘decentering’ underwrites ‘recentering’Japan’s ‘new bilateralism’: building strategic partnershipsJapan-Australia: ‘a special strategic partnership’Founding the first strategic partnershipWhat makes Japan-Australia partnership so ‘special’?Points of contention for JapanJapan’s decentering/iecentering (and becoming a center itself)?ConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesJapan’s policy toward India since 2000: for the Sake of maintaining US leadership in East AsiaIntroductionPeople who have made Japan’s policy toward India since 2000: their political ideologies, beliefs, and motivationsRight-wing nationalist LDP leadersPolicy elitesEmpirical analysis: Japan’s policy toward India since 2000August 2000-summer 2004: the new beginning of Japan-India relationsSpring 2005 onward: India as a balancer against China and the onset of Japan’s values diplomacyThe mid-2000s onward: Japan’s maritime security cooperation with India as part of the US-led federated defense modelConclusionNotesReferencesJapan’s security partnerships with the Philippines and VietnamIntroductionTowards substantive non-US security bilaterals: Vietnam and the PhilippinesThe ‘strategic partnership’ structureRegular strategic dialoguesHigh-level political interactionDiplomatic supportAid-based maritime capacity’ buildingMilitary cooperationThe shifting power balance in maritime East Asia and Japan’s rising threat perceptionUnder American auspicesJapanese nationalismConstitutional, legal, and paralegal reformsLimitations and constraintsConclusionReferencesIII. Japan’s focus on multilateral security cooperationFrom a decentering and recentering imperative: Japan’s approach to Asian security multilateralismIntroductionJapan’s leading role in establishing the ARF (1990-1994): security multilateralism as an outlet for decentering aspirationsJapan’s APT and EAS initiatives (1997-2005): the surge of a decentering imperative and a tilt towards East Asian security multilateralism-onwards: Asia-Pacific Security Multilateralism as a means of recentering on the US-Japan allianceConclusionNotesReferencesIs Japan’s engagement in counter­piracy missions a step towards decentering of its security policy?IntroductionInitial international and Japanese reactionsJapan’s contribution to the multilateral-force counter-piracy missionJapan’s early contribution to information sharingJapan’s contribution to the Contact Group on Piracy off the Coast of SomaliaJapan’s cooperation with the Combined Maritime Forces (CMF)Significance of the Djibouti baseOperational cooperation with other forcesThe counter-piracy experience and changes in Japanese security policyRelevance for Japan’s security partnerships with the EU and NATOConclusionNotesReferencesJapan’s cooperation with the EU in the nexus of development and securityIntroductionHistorical backgroundChanges on a global levelChanges in JapanChanges on the EU-sideCooperation in the nexus of security and developmentPotential for further future cooperation in the nexus of security and developmentNotesReferencesEvolution of Japan’s non-­US centric security strategy and European influences on Japan’s peace­building policyIntroductionDevelopment of Japan’s peace-building policy towards international peace cooperation activitiesThe Revision of the PKO Laws and the SDF Laws/11 Attack and the development of international peace cooperation activitiesThe Ministry of Defense (MoD) and the New “Primary Mission”The new policies and legislation for “Proactive Contribution to Peace”European factor? Influences and cooperationCooperation on a practical level: SDF dispatch and mil-mil exchangesConclusionsNotesReferencesIV. Reflections on Japan’s non­-American focused initiativesThe continued centrality of the United States to Japan’s security doctrine in an era of expanding security partnershipsIntroductionThe complex legacy of the US-Japan relationship, yet the lack of plausible alternativesThe re-embrace of the alliance and push to further deepening under AbeWhy diversify beyond the world’s most powerful ally?Incessant US pressure on Japan to play a larger security rolePost-Cold War emergence of a multipolar Asia and relative decline of Japan and the USCommon US and Japanese strategies of looking for new security partnersThe US pivot to Asia under Obama and continuity under TrumpThe Japanese pivot to Asia under AbeNext steps in alliance deepening and broadening: complementing Japan’s new security partnershipsNotesReferencesNon-­US direction in Japan’s security strategy: a Chinese viewIntroductionChina Alarmed: the causes and objectives of Japan’s Non-US diplomacyTaking a note: the accomplishments of Japan’s non-US directionNo over-concern: constraints and the prospects of Japan’s non-US diplomacyConclusion: Japan-US alliance still the central concernReferencesConclusionIntroductionOverview of findingsSynthesisConclusionsNotesReferences
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