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The Impact of Food Bioactives on Health





Cells Present in the IntestineRole of MicrobiotaDefinition of Concepts: Bioavailability, Bioaccessibility and BioactivityStatic MethodsSolubility/DialyzabilityDigestion ConditionsApplications: Advantages and DisadvantagesStatic Versus In Vivo Digestion: ConclusionsReferencesInfoGest Consensus MethodIntroductionThe Oral PhaseThe Gastric PhaseThe Small Intestinal PhasePracticalitiesSamplingConclusionsReferencesApproaches to Static Digestion ModelsIntroductionStatic Models for Protein HydrolysisStatic Models for Lipid HydrolysisOther Static ModelsReferencesGeometryPhysical ForcesBiochemistryReferencesThe TNO Gastro-Intestinal Model (TIM)IntroductionConcept of TIMTIM-1Tiny TIMAdvanced Gastric Compartment (TIM-agc)The Use of TIM to Study the Bio-accessibility of NutrientsProtein QualityPrediction of Glycemic ResponseLipidsConclusionsReferencesDynamic Gastric Model (DGM)Origins and Design of the DGMGeneral Protocol for DGM ExperimentsUses of the DGMFood-Based ResearchPharmaceutical-Based ResearchAdvantages, Disadvantages and LimitationsAvailability of the SystemReferencesHuman Gastric Simulator (Riddet Model)Origins of the HGSModel DescriptionGastric CompartmentGastric MotilityGastric EmptyingGastric SecretionsTemperature ControlAnalysis of HGS Biomechanical RelevanceOperating ProtocolPreparation of a Food BolusGastric ProcessingUses of the HGSRole of ACW Activity on Food DigestionRole of Food Material PropertiesAdvantages and LimitationsAvailability of the SystemReferencesThe DIDGI® SystemOrigins and Design of the DIDGI® SystemValidation of DIDGI® for the Digestion of Infant FormulaProtocol for the In Vitro Dynamic Digestion of Infant Formula Using the DIDGI® SystemIn Vivo Digestion of Infant Formula on PigletsComparison In Vitro/In Vivo DataAdvantages, Disadvantages and LimitationsConclusion and ProspectsReferencesMedium QualitypH and CO2Serum AdditionThe Cell Culture HoodCell Culture Terminology (Fig. 1)General Cell Culture ProtocolsTrypsinisation and Subculturing of CellsPassaging of Cells in Suspension CultureFreezing CellsThe Thawing and Recovery of CellsCell Viability TestingContamination of Cell CulturesReferencesMeasurement of Transepithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER)Basic ProtocolCalculating Transepithelial ResistanceVerification of Monolayer Integrity by Lucifer Yellow FluxBasic ProtocolSummaryReferencesCaco-2 Cell LineOriginFeatures and MechanismsStability, Consistency and ReproducibilityRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationGeneral Protocols for Caco-2 CellsGeneral MaintenanceProtocol for Polarizing Caco-2 Cells in Tissue Culture InsertsTroubleshooting Guide for Transport Experiments Across Caco-2 MonolayersApplicationsAdvantages and DisadvantagesConclusionReferencesHT29 Cell LineOriginFeatures and MechanismsStability, Consistency and ReproducibilityRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationGeneral Protocol for HT29-MTX CellsCell Maintenance ProtocolExperimental Protocol for Test CompoundsExperimental Read OutFunctionality StudiesTransport StudiesMicroorganisms Survival, Adhesion or InvasionConclusionsReferencesThe IPEC-J2 Cell LineOriginSpecial Features/Morphology/ReceptorsStability/Consistency/Reproducibility of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationGeneral ProtocolCulture ConditionsExperimental ReadoutSample PreparationConclusionReferencesCo-cultivation of Caco-2 and HT-29MTXOrigin, Features and MechanismsStability/Consistency and ReproducibilityRelevance to the Human In Vivo SituationGeneral ProtocolAssess ViabilityExperimental ReadoutAdvantages, Disadvantages and LimitationsConclusionsReferencesMonocytes and MacrophagesDendritic CellsHuman Peripheral Blood Mononuclear CellsT Lymphocytes or T-CellsOrigin and Some Features of THP-1 and U937 CellsStability, Consistency and Reproducibility of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationOther Models with the Same ApplicabilityGeneral Protocol of Culturing THP-1 CellsDifferentiation of THP-1 and U937 Monocytes into MacrophagesDifferentiation of THP-1 and U937 Monocytes into Dendritic CellsControls to Test Viability and Performance of the ModelCritical NotesRead-Out of the SystemReferencesPeripheral Blood Mononuclear CellsOriginFeatures and MechanismsStability, Consistency and ReproducibilityRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationGeneral ProtocolStudy of Proliferative/Cytotoxic ActivityStudy of Inflammatory ResponsesAssess ViabilityExperimental Read OutAdvantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemConclusionsReferencesPBMC-Derived T CellsIntroduction and OriginFeatures and MechanismsApplications of T Cell CulturesGeneral ProtocolT Cell Isolation ProtocolsIndirect Positive Isolation of Human CD4+ TAssess ViabilitySamplesExperimental ReadoutsReferencesDendritic CellsOriginFeatures and MechanismsDC SubsetsGeneral ProtocolsDC Cell LinesIsolating Primary DCs from BloodCD34+-Derived DCsMonocyte-Derived DCsAsses ViabilityExperimental ReadoutCo-stimulationCytokine ProductionOther DC ReadoutsIn Vitro Studies on Food Bioactives Using DCs (Table 17.3)Critical NotesReferencesCo-culture Caco-2/Immune CellsOrigin, Features and MechanismsRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationCo-culture Caco-2 and Dendritic CellsCo-culture Caco-2 and B-cells (Raji)Stability, Consistency and ReproducibilityGeneral ProtocolCo-culture of Caco-2/Human Monocyte Derived DCs (Include Contact Dependent Events)Caco-2/Human Monocyte Derived DCs (Soluble Factors)Caco-2/THP-1 (Soluble Factors)Caco-2/PBMCs (Soluble Factors)Caco-2/B CellsAssess ViabilityExperimental ReadoutAdvantages, Disadvantages and LimitationsConclusionsReferencesSTC-1 CellsOriginFeatures and MechanismsStability, Consistency and ReproducibilityRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationGeneral ProtocolCell Maintenance ProtocolExperimental Protocol for Test CompoundsAssess ViabilityExperimental Read outConclusionsReferencesNCI-H716 CellsIntroductionOriginFeatures and MechanismsStability/Consistency/ReproducibilityRelevance to the Human L-Cell In VivoGeneral ProtocolCell Maintenance ProtocolExperimental Protocol for Test CompoundsAssess ViabilityExperimental ReadoutConclusionsReferencesMurine GLUTag CellsIntroductionOriginFeatures and MechanismsRegulation of GLUTag Cell Secretory Activity by NutrientsRegulation of GLUTag Cell Secretory Activity by Other SignalsRelevance to the Human Situation (L-Cell In Vivo)General ProtocolMaintenance of the GLUTag Cell LinePerformance of Secretion and Expression AssaysAssess ViabilityExperimental Readout of the SystemConclusionsReferencesIntestinal Rings and Intestinal SegmentsEverted SacUssing ChamberIsolated and Perfused Intestinal Segments-D Culture SystemsIntestinal Crypt Organoids as Experimental ModelsGastrointestinal OrganoidsGeneral ProtocolSmall Intestinal Crypt IsolationSmall Intestinal Organoid CultureSmall Intestinal Organoid PassageMonitoring ViabilityGeneral Advantages and Limitations of Intestinal Organoid SystemsReferencesPorcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment ModelThe Porcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment ModelGeneral ProtocolSample AnalysisMonitoring ViabilityIncubation with Food Components and Digested Food SamplesReadout of the Porcine Ex Vivo Intestinal Segment ModelGeneral Advantages and Disadvantages of the ModelReferencesUssing ChamberThe Ussing ChamberGeneral ProtocolMonitoring ViabilityUse of Digested Food SamplesReadout of the Ussing Chamber SystemGeneral Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the Ussing Chamber SystemReferencesDynamic Fermentation ModelsInoculation of Gut Fermentation ModelsHost-Gut Microbiota InteractionOne Compartment Fermentation ModelDescription of the VTT One Compartment Fermentation ModelHistory of the ModelSpecial FeaturesValidation of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationQuality in Relation to Other Models with the Same ApplicabilityGeneral ProtocolControls: Positive and NegativeRead Out of the SystemSummary of Advantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the System and Contingency PlanReferencesThe TNO In Vitro Model of the Colon (TIM-2)Description of TIM-2History of the ModelSpecial Features of the ModelStability and Reproducibility of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationQuality in Relation to Other Models with the Same ApplicabilityGeneral ProtocolControls to Test Stability and Performance of the ModelRead-Out of the System and How This Information Can Be UsedAdvantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferencesThe Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (SHIME®)Description of SHIME®History of the ModelSpecial Features of the ModelStability and Reproducibility of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationQuality in Relation to Other Models with the Same ApplicabilityGeneral ProtocolControls to Test Stability and Performance of the ModelRead-Out of the System and How This Information Can Be UsedAdvantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferencesThe Computer-Controlled Multicompartmental Dynamic Model of the Gastrointestinal System SIMGIDescription of the ModelHistory and Special Features of the ModelStability and Reproducibility of the SystemRelevance to Human In Vivo SituationQuality in Relation to Other Models with the Same ApplicabilityGeneral ProtocolControls to Test Stability and Performance of the ModelRead-Out of the SystemAdvantages, Disadvantages and Limitations of the SystemReferences
 
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