International Secretariats: Two Centuries of International Civil Servants and Secretariats

AbbreviationsIO BIO: career descriptionsInternational secretariats as actorsInternational civil servantsAvailable literatureOutline of the bookNotesInternational river commissionsThe Congress of ViennaThe Rhine CommissionThe Danube CommissionConclusionNotesPublic international unionsInvention of the follow-up conferenceMultinational conferences and treaty makingInstitutionalization and permanent secretariatsInstitutionalization and governing boardsNineteenth-century international functionariesConclusionNotesConcert of Europe conferences and private initiativesMultilateral conference secretariatsThe private Red Cross initiativeThe Institute of International LawThe Permanent Court of ArbitrationThe 1907 Hague Peace ConferenceInternational anti-slavery, prostitution, and labor legislationConclusionNotesWar and peace: 1914–1919The International Committee of the Red CrossInter-Allied war councilsThe establishment of the League of NationsPublic international unions, river commissions, and permanent courtsThe establishment of the International Labour OrganizationConclusionNotesThe League of Nations and the International Labour OrganizationSetting up the League of Nations SecretariatSetting up the International Labour OfficeThe Permanent Court of International JusticeThe specialized agencies of the League of NationsGeneva as an international cityOn the eve of warConclusionNotesWartime international organizationsThe Allied United NationsSetting up the United Nations OrganizationConclusionNotesThe United Nations SystemSpecialized agencies and international staffUnited Nations frontierspersonsCoordination within the United Nations SystemBoundary decisions and individual leadersConclusionNotesRegional international organizationsCulturally based continental organizationsUN regional economic commissionsEuropean cooperationThe Global SouthConclusionNotesNATO and OECDAlliance formation and institutionalizationInter-organizational relationsThe OECD SecretariatConclusionNotesInternational courts and tribunalsThe International Court of JusticeAdministrative tribunalsWar crimes: Nuremberg and TokyoCreating international criminal courtsThe International Tribunal for the Law of the SeaThe Permanent Court of Arbitration revivedConclusionNotesThe United Nations SecretariatThe secretary-general’s political leadershipExpanding the UN SecretariatManaging the UN SecretariatWomen in the UN SecretariatOngoing administrative reformUN cities and nationalities in the UN SecretariatConclusionNotesRegional integration around the worldWestern multilateral development aidSouthern regional integration: Latin America and AfricaSetting up the EEC CommissionThe European Court of JusticeThe internal negotiating game and external activities of the EECThe evolution of the ASEAN SecretariatPost-Communist international secretariatsConclusionNotesWorld conferences, sherpas, and treaty secretariatsUnited Nations world conferencesCountry clubs and sherpasTreaty secretariatsThe Paris AgreementConclusionNotesInventing the international secretariatDetailing the internal structure of intergovernmental organizationsLeaving secretariat elaboration to frontierspersons: 1919 and 1945Structures matter and people matterNotesSelect bibliography
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