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References

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Appendix: Narrowly-circumscribed lexical semantic verb classes

LIKE/PLEASE:

like: falla (i geS) (ON-I), areskein (Gr), paktikti (OLith), ougazati (OR), placere (Lat)

like to hear: fallast i eyru (ON-I)

be pleased: finnast (ON-I), arestos einai (Gr), liuba buti (OLith), visladeti (OR), libere (Lat)

find pleasant: smagu buti (OLith), philos einai (Gr)

love: leika ast a (ON-I), dabotis (OLith)

appreciate: vera virkt á (ON-I)

find praiseworthy: eukleés einai (Gr), laudi esse (Lat)

find preferable: praestare (Lat)

DISLIKE:

dislike: leiSast (ON-I), displicere (Lat), nepatikti (OLith)

be(come) unhappy: forbokkast (ON-I)

find unpleasant: amarus esse (Lat), echthros einai (Gr)

detest: mrbzbko byti (OR), contemptui esse (Lat)

LONG:

have desire: fysast (ON-I), ougodbno byti (OR)

long: lengjast (ON-I)

want: norétis (OLith)

have interest for: vera hugur (ON-I), interesse (Lat)

be eager: vera tíSkan á (ON-I)

feel tempted: rozvratbno byti (OR)

ENJOY/HAPPINESS:

feel good: bjóSa bekt (ON-I)

be(come) happy: oudobbni byti (OR)

enjoy: hédeos einai (Gr), contingere (Lat), smagu büti (OLith), radostbnb byti (OR)

feel delighted: terpsis einai (Gr)

feel amused: gaudium esse (Lat)

FEEL/EXPERIENCE:

feel: búa í skapi (ON-I)

feel at rest: eira (ON-I)

feel/think: finnast (ON-I), ménitisja (OR)

experience: empeiria gignesthai (Gr)

be in a spirit: liggja á (ON-I)

FEAR/DANGER:

have fear/agony: ofbjóSa (ON-I), timori esse (Lat) baisétis (OLith)

become terrified: renna kalt vatn milli skinns og hörunds (ON-I)

shudder: blikra (ON-I)

be condemned: damnationi esse (Lat)

be in danger: standa mein aS (ON-I), molestus esse (Lat), kindunos einai (Gr)

be out of danger: vera borgiS (ON-I), tutus esse (Lat)

be detrimental: detrimento esse (Lat)

bring to ruin: exitio esse (Lat)

bring punishment: zémian ameibesthai (Gr)

SUFFER/DISTRESS:

suffer: paschesthai (Gr), gore byti (OR)

be in distress: dolor esse (Lat), olethros einai (Gr)

be anxious: curae esse (Lat)

be in misery: miser esse (Lat), péma einai (Gr)

be offended: bdeluktos einai (Gr)

ANGER/IRRITATION:

become angry: renna skap (ON-I)

be vexed: skaprauna (ON-I), odiosus esse (Lat)

be irritated: taedio esse (Lat)

find intolerable: intolerabilis esse (Lat)

BORED/TIRED:

be bored: leiSast (ON-I), nusibosti (OLith)

be tired: pailgti (OLith), taedio esse (Lat)

RELIEVE/EASE:

feel relief: lettast (ON-I), levationi esse (Lat)

become at ease: hagjast um (ON-I), solacium esse (Lat)

feel comfort: consolationi esse (Lat)

be easy: facilis esse (Lat), oudobb byti (OR), anesis einai (Gr), lengva buti (OLith)

be helpful: prothumos einai (Gr), utilis esse (Lat)

be good: bene esse (Lat), lusitelein (Gr), blago byti (OR)

BURDEN/LOAD:

be bothered: angra (ON-I)

worry: rupeti (OLith), thorubos einai (Gr)

regret: angra (ON-I)

feel burdened: thlipsis einai (Gr), odiosus esse (Lat)

have problems with sth: vandraSast (ON-I), laboriosus esse (Lat), meteibno byti (OR)

find (im)possible: hlySast (ON-I), adunatein (Gr), mocbno byti (OR)

be bad: hrigos einai (Gr), malum esse (Lat)

be difficult: acerbus esse (Lat), argaleon einai (Gr), sunku buti (OLith), vbstouziti (OR) be of cost: gratus esse (Lat)

find strength in sth: vera styrkur aS (ON-I), firmus esse (Lat), pora byti (OR)

be awkward: vera um hönd (ON-I)

SORROW/SADNESS:

be in sorrow: oiktos empiptein (Gr), gailti (OLith), pecalb byti (OR), dolori esse (Lat)

feel sad: lupe einai(Gr)

PAIN:

cause pain: sarna (ON-I)

be in pain: algeinös einai (Gr), skandeti (OLith), zblo byti (OR), dolor esse (Lat)

be wounded: vera sar (ON-I), helkousthai (Gr)

feel pinched by sth: ha (ON-I) harm, cause trouble: nocere (Lat)

BITTERNESS/HATE:

bear accusations: krisis einai (Gr), crimini esse (Lat)

be hateful: odium esse (Lat), odussesthai (Gr)

be bitter: pikros einai (Gr)

SHAME:

be shameful: infamiae esse (Lat), vina byti (OR)

be of shame: elenchos einai (Gr), vera skömm aS (ON-I), ljute (OR), geda buti (OLith), pudor esse (Lat)

CARE:

be dear: carus esse (Lat), miela buti (OLith), Cbstbnb byti (OR), entimos einai (Gr)

care: mellein (Gr), curae esse (Lat)

find lovable: amabilis esse (Lat)

find (un)important for sby: skipta mali (ON-I), levis esse (Lat), luein (Gr), reikalinga buti (OLith)

have something at heart: vera umhugaS um (ON-I)

be of smb's business/concern: res esse (Lat), meteinai (Gr), rupeti (OLith), nadobbnb byti (OR)

be compassionate: etor entrepesthai (Gr)

feel pity for: gaileti (OLith), zalb byti (OR)

SUFFICE/BE OF USE:

be sufficient/suffice: duga (ON-I), satis esse (Lat), exarkein (Gr), kakti (OLith), dovblati (OR)

have use of sth: verSa gagn aS (ON-I), lusitelein (Gr), usus esse (Lat)

SUIT/BE PROPER/CORRECT:

suit, become: sama (ON-I), commodus esse (Lat), prepein (Gr), dereti (OLith), prijetbnyi byti (OR)

be proper for sby: sama (ON-I), decori esse (Lat), dikaion einai (Gr), tikti (Olith), gode byti (OR)

be acceptable: prijetbnyi byti (OR)

be approved: ratus esse (Lat)

be accustomed to: eoika (Gr)

be correct: lepo byti (OR)

be just: aisimon einai (Gr)

HAVE HOPE/WISH: be hopeful: spes esse (Lat)

have faith: verbno byti (OR)

have a wish: optatus esse (Lat), poluaretos einai (Gr), xotetise (OR)

gather courage: ageiresthai thumos (Gr)

BENEFIT:

benefit: aflast (ON-I), prodesse (Lat), kerdiön einai (Gr), polbza byti (OR)

get, receive: askotnast (ON-I), tekti (OLith), imati (OR)

have (bad) luck: aka (ON-I)

have/gain time: vacare (Lat)

be ordained by fate: auSnast (ON-I), moira einai (Gr)

have an advantage: perisson einai (Gr)

manage to collect: safnast (ON-I)

produce a (lawful) witness: fullnast vitni (ON-I), testis esse (Lat)

serve as an argument/example/proof: argumento/documento/indicio esse (Lat)

BE ALLOWED:

be offered: bjoSast (ON-I)

be allowed: licere (Lat), exeinai (Gr), lbze byti (OR)

be permitted: fas esse (Lat)

GROW:

gain strength: vaxa fiskur um hrygg (ON-I), menos aexein (Gr)

grow: vaxa fjaSrir (ON-I), crescere (Lat)

prosper: euodos einai (Gr)

BODILY TEMP:

feel warm: hitna (ON-I), teplo byti (OR), therme einai (Gr)

(start to) freeze: kolna (ON-I)

have fever: febris esse (Lat)

GET BETTER/WORSE:

get better (health): batna (ON-I)

get worse: daprast (ON-I)

grow weak: förlast (ON-I)

GET YOUNGER/OLDER:

get younger: pomolodeti (OR)

SLEEP/CONSCIOUSNESS:

get a clouded vision: draga sky (ON-I)

feel sleepy: gera svefnhöfugt (ON-I)

fall/be asleep: ep' ommasi hupnos hizanein (Gr)

lose consciousness: sortna fyrir augum (ON-I)

SWALLOW/CHOKE:

go down the wrong way (about food): svelgjast a (ON-I)

feel disgusted: aedia einai (Gr), fastidio esse (Lat)

DISEASE (SYMPTOMS):

bleed: blseSa (ON-I)

itch: niezeti (OLith), surna augu (ON-I)

have a disease: morbus esse (Lat)

become dry: tersesthai (Gr)

shiver: gnolla (ON-I)

HUNGER/THIRST

hunger: lakati (OR)

by thirsty: sitis esse (Lat)

SUSPECT

suspect: bo3a hugur (ON-I)

have apprehension: segja hugur um (ON-I)

(COME TO) THINK:

occur to one's mind: hugsast (ON-I), succurrere (Lat), eperchesthai (Gr), priiti vb oum (OR)

consider/count: vbslovesitisja (OR), skepsis einai (Gr)

expect: vera von (ON-I), expectatio esse (Lat), epanamenein (Gr)

have an understanding (or not): skiljast (ON-I), adelein (Gr)

BE (IN)DETERMINED:

be determined: certus esse (Lat)

be sure: constare (Lat)

have a reason: causa esse (Lat)

change one's mind: gangast hugur viS (ON-I)

be hesitant: vera um og 6 (ON-I)

be in doubt: dubium esse (Lat), onar einai (Gr)

have (good) intentions: hilaos einai (Gr), consilium esse (Lat)

BE SURPRISED/CONFUSED:

be confounded: fipast (ON-I)

forbode: furSa (ON-I)

be amazed: hnykkja viS (ON-I)

be surprised: thauma einai (Gr), dyveti (OLith), divbnyi (OR)

be in confusion: taragmos empiptein (Gr)

be startled/shocked: blikra (ON-I)

(CHANGE OF) KNOWING:

know: vera (6)kunnleiki a (ON-I), (ig)notus esse (Lat), vedomo byti (OR), gnöstos einai (Gr)

forget: fyrnast (ON-I)

remember: loSa eyrum (ON-I),

be curious: skeyta forvitni (ON-I)

be wise: metis einai (Gr)

be ignorant: skotos einai (Gr)

be senseless: insania esse (Lat)

PERCEPTION:

hear: heyrast (ON-I)

hear news: spyrjast (ON-I)

dream: vera draums (ON-I)

have a vision: vitra (ON-I)

sound in ears: skambeti (OLith)

smell: subolere (Lat)

be tasteful: gardu buti (OLith)

perceive: paristasthai (Gr)

SPEAKING:

say: kveSast (ON-I)

speak well: malast (ON-I)

have a slip of the tongue: verSa a mismali (ON-I)

misspeak: vefjast tunga um tönn (ON-I)

accidentally speak out a poem: verSa visa a munni (ON-I)

be struck dumb: verSa orSfall (ON-I)

chatter incautiously: verSa letthjalaS (ON-I)

complain: lesche einai (Gr)

SUCCESS:

make progress: fara fram (ON-I)

fare well: farast vel (ON-I), sektis (OLith)

do well: ganga (ON-I), zitisja (OR)

have victory over: sigrast (ON-I)

succeed: takast (ON-I), succedere (Lat), sumbainein (Gr), sektis (OLith), ougoditise (OR)

manage: takast (ON-I), sumbainein (Gr)

HINDER:

get a hindrance/stay: dveljast (ON-I) get caught: ahankast (ON-I)

be delayed/hindered: verSa seint (ON-I), protivitisja (OR) get impeded: hlekkjast a (ON-I), impedimento esse (Lat)

be slow: lata (ON-I)

lead to death: draga til dauSa (ON-I), FAIL:

fail, do wrong: gefask yfir (ON-I)

go amiss with sby: misfarast (ON-I)

not succeed/go wrong: mistakast (ON-I)

falter: skjatlast (ON-I)

see wrongly: missynast (ON-I)

escape one's notice: yfirsjast um (ON-I)

SLIP/LOSE:

slip/stagger: missa (ON-I) lose: atimti (OLith)

(DIS)SIMILARITY:

turn into one's kin: kippa kyniS (ON-I)

DIS/AGREE:

come in collision with: lenda saman (ON-I)

agree: lynda (ON-I), keisthai (Gr), constare (Lat)

disagree: missemja (ON-I)

have in common: communis esse (Lat)

SUPERIORITY:

have power: potestas esse (Lat), vylozitse; (OR)

be wealthy: amplus esse (Lat)

be worthy: axios einai (Gr)

be noble: gennaiotatos einai (Gr)

be worthy of: dignus esse (Lat)

feel honored by sth: vera höfuSburSur at (ON-I), honori esse (Lat)

ONTOLO GICAL STATES:

be in a certain way: vera fariS (ON-I)

have a mother (of a certain type): masSra (ON-I)

be left: reliquus esse (Lat)

make a difference: muna (ON-I)

be due: tunchanein (Gr), sukakti (OLith)

be accompanied by: opädein (Gr)

PROPERTIES/ABILITIES:

never smile: stökkva eigi bros a vör (ON-I)

have an ability: vera gefiS (ON-I)

be able to: pareikein (Gr), mocb(no) byti (OR)

be audible: slysano byti (OR)

one's hands be amiss: vera mislagSar hendur (ON-I)

have a sound mind: mens esse (Lat)

HAPPEN:

happen: accedere (Lat), apobainein (Gr), atistikti (OLith), loucitisja (OR)

come upon: dostatisç (OR)

have a journey: cursus esse (Lat)

not the fate for sby: nëstb (OR)

OBLIGATION:

be obliged: bera (ON-I), privalu büti (OLith)

be destined to/must: menein (Gr)

have to/must: opheilein (Gr), reikéti (OLith), nouzda byti (OR)

have a tie of hospitality: hospitium esse (Lat)

LACK:

run out of: dospëtisja (OR)

lack: bila (ON-I), deesse (Lat), elleipein (Gr), stokoti (OLith), lixi byti (OR)

need: vera bôrf â (ON-I), oportere (Lat), dein (Gr), reikéti (OLith), nadobë byti (OR)

SEEM/APPEAR:

seem: virSast (ON-I), videri (Lat), dokein (Gr), regétis (OLith), javitisç (OR)

be clear/apparent to sby: liquere (Lat), vidëti (OR)

appear: birtast (ON-I), apparere (Lat), phainesthai (Gr), dozbrëti (OR)

POSSESSION:

be called: nomen esse (Lat), onoma einai (Gr)

have, possess: einai (Gr), büti (OLith), esse (Lat), byti (OR)

 
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