A History of the Credit Market in Central Europe: The Middle Ages and Early Modern Period

Theoretical conceptsAreas of researchReferencesLoans and debts as a part of royal financesLoan transactions in the Kingdom of Hungary up to the end of the 14th centuryIntroductionHungarian kings’ borrowingsLendersConclusionReferencesLoans and debts of the Bohemian kings in the Middle Ages: From the last Premyslids until the end of the pre-Hussite period (1262-1419)IntroductionLoans and debts of the last PřemyslidsKings of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg and their extraordinary incomesConclusionReferencesIncome and expenditures of the Hungarian Royal Chamber during the first ruling years of King Vladislaus Jagiellon: Analysis of an accounting register from the years 1494-1495The beginnings of royal pledging in the Kingdom of HungaryIntroductionKing Louis I’s financesA new element of the royal extraordinary revenuesConclusionFundingReferencesKing’s debts and king’s creditors in Poland in the first half of the 15th centuryThe political and economic relevance of Jewish loans for the dukes of Austria during the late Middle AgesIntroductionJewish moneylenders between duke and nobilityDucal protection of Jewish credit businessDucal encroachment on Jewish credit business and its limitsConclusionFundingNoteReferencesCredit market in medieval and early modern townsWritten sources concerning debts and loans in late medieval Czech townsIntroductionThe beginnings of town official documentsChartersTown ledgersFinancial ledgersGuilds and brotherhoodsOther institutions active in the townAcknowledgmentReferencesMonetary credit market in the cities of the southern Baltic coast in the late Middle Ages (Greifswald, Gdansk, Elbing,Toruri, Rewel)IntroductionSocial aspects of credit markets in Baltic cities – social structure of the participantsEconomic aspects of credit markets in Baltic cities – credit market as an indicator of the city’s economic positionEconomic prosperity on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea in the late Middle Ages and its conditionsCredit markets in Baltic cities against the backdrop of the region and Western Europe (selected aspects)ConclusionFundingReferencesRural credit and monetarisation of the peasantry in the late Middle Ages: The Eger city state c. 1450IntroductionRegion and sourcesMonetarisationCredit marketThe testimony of the petitionsThe testimony of the records of the loansGeographical aspectsConclusionFundingReferencesThe credit market in Old Warsaw in the late Middle AgesIntroductionEconomic and legal backgroundSocial backgroundConclusionNoteReferencesCredit and finance in Rudolphine PragueIntroductionThe legal conditions for trade in early modern PragueCredit in light of the Land ConstitutionCredit practice by Christians and Jews in PragueConclusionFundingReferencesThe credit market of a small peripheral Polish town in the early modern periodJewish credit business in the urban context of late medieval AustriaIntroductionUrban policy regarding Jewish moneylendingEarly attemptsMunicipal policies after 1338Attempts at a more encompassing controlJews as subjects of municipal administrationJewish moneylenders and their clienteleJews before courtEconomy in polemicsConclusionFundingNoteReferencesEconomic, political, legal and other consequences of debts and loansEconomical and political consequences of the limiting of the statutory maximum interest rate in Central Europe from 10% to 6% since 1543IntroductionSpecifics of the economic system of medieval BohemiaDebt of the Royal ChamberInterest rate in Central Europe in the early 1540sTechnical implementation of interest rate reduction in BohemiaImmediate consequences of the interest rate reduction in 1543Long-term consequences of the interest rate reduction in 1543ConclusionReferencesLegal regulation of the credit market in Bohemia and MoraviaIntroductionEarly opinions on the credit marketRegulation of the credit market in the first codificationsObligation and business law in municipal codesConclusionFundingReferencesThe trade in farm money in rural areas in the 16th and 17th centuries (using the example of small towns on the Pardubice estate)IntroductionThe attitude of landlords to the trade in farm moneyThe motivation of buyers and sellersThe extent of the trade in farm money and its buyersConclusionReferencesInvestments of a south Bohemian ‘banker’ in the first half of the I 6th century The credit operations of Knight Petr Doudlebsky of DoudlebyIntroductionOrigin, inheritance, and first business activitiesIn the services of the lords of RosenbergCredit investments and their resourcesRegular income structureValue of debenturesImmovable propertyRich old bachelor and his bequestConclusionReferencesThe Lithuanian Evangelical Reformed Church as a credit institution in the 17th centuryIntroductionThe aim and sourcesThe Calvinists’ approach to usuryThe financial situation of the Jednota in the 17th centuryRent purchaseLoansConclusionFundingReferencesDebts and claims as a part of administration and everyday life of Bohemian chamber estates in the early modern periodIntroductionBohemian chamber estates and its administrationDefinition and structure of the dominiumAdministrative hierarchyMonarch, nobles, burghers, and sefs as debtors and creditorsArrears (‘rest’) of the patrimonial officers as neuralgic part of the administrationConclusionFundingReferencesFinancial aspects of the property transactions of rural subjects in Moravia in the 16th and 17th centuriesIntroductionPrices of farm holdings and the instalment systemSale/purchase of farm moneyOrphans’ cash boxes and church endowmentsConclusionFundingReferencesDebt in the life of a Gdansk merchantIntroductionThe merchant and his bookThe bookkeepingCreditCash creditCredit in commoditiesTrade creditWarrantors, promissory notes, entries in town booksLife annuitiesWedderlegyngeConclusionNoteReferences
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