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Marine Anthropogenic Litter

A Brief History of Marine Litter ResearchIntroductionSeabirds and Seals—The First Signs of TroubleThe Early 1970s—Pellets and Other Problems in the North AtlanticShifting Focus to the North Pacific OceanInto the Southern HemisphereAloha—The Marine Debris ConferencesMitigation Measures and Long-Term Changes in Marine LitterPlastic Degradation and the Microplastic BoomSummary and ConclusionsI Abiotic Aspects of Marine Litter PollutionGlobal Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine LitterFrançois Galgani, Georg Hanke and Thomas MaesIntroductionCompositionDistributionBeachesFloating Marine DebrisSeafloorMicroplasticsSummary and ConclusionsPersistence of Plastic Litter in the OceansIntroductionBuoyancy and Sampling ErrorsFate of Plastics Entering the OceansPhoto-Oxidative DegradationMechanisms of Photo-OxidationWeathering Under Marine ConditionsMicroplastics in the OceansConclusionsII Biological Implications of Marine LitterDeleterious Effects of Litter on Marine LifeIntroductionEntanglementWays of EntanglementEffects of EntanglementSmotheringIngestion of PlasticWays of Plastic IngestionIntentional IngestionAccidental and Secondary IngestionImpacts of Plastic IngestionDirect Mortality Caused by Plastic IngestionIndirect Physical Effects of Plastic IngestionChemical Effects from Plastic IngestionChain of Impacts Related to Plastic IngestionImpacts from Species DispersalDiscussionThe Complex Mixture, Fate and Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Plastic Debris in the Marine EnvironmentIntroductionPlastic Marine Debris: A Complex Mixture of ChemicalsPlastics and Their Chemical IngredientsThe Accumulation of Chemicals on Plastic Debris in the Marine EnvironmentSpatial VariabilityVariability by Plastic Type and SizePlastic Debris, Environmental Chemical Contaminants and Environmental FatePlastic Debris as a Sink for Environmental ContaminantsProcess of AccumulationRate of AccumulationComparisons with Other Environmental MediaPlastic Debris as a Source of Environmental ContaminantsGlobal TransportFood Web TransportToxicity of Plastic Debris to Marine LifeHazards Associated with Plastic IngredientsHazards Associated with the Complex Mixture of Plastic and Sorbed PollutantsConclusionMarine Litter as Habitat and Dispersal VectorIntroductionFloating Litter as a HabitatComposition of Rafting Assemblages on Floating LitterTaxonomic OverviewBiological Traits of Rafting Invertebrates on Floating LitterMobilityFeeding BiologyReproductive TraitsOther Species Attracted to Marine LitterSuccession of the Rafting CommunityFloating Litter as Dispersal VectorSummary and OutlookIII MicroplasticsMicroplastics in the Marine Environment: Sources, Consequences and SolutionsIntroductionDefinitions of MicroplasticsSpatial and Temporal Patterns in the Abundance of MicroplasticsAnticipated Future TrendsConclusionsMethodology Used for the Detection and Identification of Microplastics—A Critical AppraisalIntroductionSampling for MicroplasticsWater SamplesSediment SamplesBeachesSubtidal SedimentsBiotaLaboratory Preparation of SamplesExtraction of MicroplasticsSize FractionationSample PurificationIdentification of MicroplasticsVisual IdentificationIdentification of Microplastics by Their Chemical CompositionDensity Separation with Subsequent C:H:N AnalysisPyrolysis-GC/MSRaman SpectroscopyIR SpectroscopyCase StudyMaterials and MethodsSediment SamplingExtraction of MicroplasticsVisual Quantification of MicroplasticsFPA-based Micro-FTIR SpectroscopyResultsFPA-based Micro-FTIR Analysis of Pre-extracted Particles in Sediment SamplesGranular ParticlesSummaryConclusionsSources and Pathways of Microplastics to HabitatsDefining Sources and Pathways of MicroplasticLarger Plastic LitterCleaning ProductsMedicinesTextilesOutlook and ConclusionMicroplastics in the Marine Environment: Distribution, Interactions and EffectsIntroductionThe Global Distribution of Microplastics in the SeaMicroplastics in the Pacific OceanMicroplastics in the Atlantic OceanMicroplastics in European Seas and the Mediterranean SeaMicroplastics in the Indian Ocean and Marginal SeasMicroplastics in Polar RegionsModelling the Distribution of MicroplasticsSummaryInteractions of Microplastics with Marine OrganismsIngestionPlanktonic InvertebratesBenthic InvertebratesFishSea BirdsMarine MammalsSea TurtlesTrophic TransferMicroplastic Effect on HabitatsSummaryConclusionModeling the Role of Microplastics in Bioaccumulation of Organic Chemicals to Marine Aquatic Organisms. A Critical ReviewIntroductionModels to Assess the Importance of Microplastic IngestionEquilibrium PartitioningDecomposition and DisintegrationBioaccumulationModel-Based Assessment of Implications and Risks of Plastic-Associated ChemicalsSummarizing Discussion and RecommendationsNanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Critical ReviewIntroductionSources, Detection and Occurrence of NanoplasticSources of NanoplasticDetection and Occurrence of NanoplasticFate of NanoplasticBioaccumulation and EffectsBioaccumulation and Effects of NanoplasticsImplications of Chemicals and Nanofillers Associated with NanoplasticsSpecific Challenges in Nanoplastic Effect ResearchImplications and RecommendationsIV Socio-economic Implications of Marine Anthropogenic LitterMicroand Nano-plastics and Human HealthIntroductionWhat Kinds of Plastics Are in Use?Plastics and Human HealthMicroand NanoplasticsOccurrence of Microand Nanoplastics in the EnvironmentMicroand Nanoplastics and Human HealthIngestion of Microand Nanoplastics and Uptake Across the GutInteraction of Microspheres and Nanoparticles with Cells and TissuesInteractions with Biological Materials and CellsAssessing the Risks that Microand Nanoplastics Pose to Human HealthLeaching of Toxic Chemicals from PlasticsBisphenol a and Human HealthSafer Alternatives to BPANovel Polymer FormulationsNanopolymers and NanofillersConclusions and Future WorkThe Economics of Marine LitterIntroductionEstimating the Economic Impacts of Marine LitterBeach Cleaning, Tourism and RecreationShipping and YachtingFisheriesAquacultureAgricultureHuman HealthSummaryMarine Litter and Economic IncentivesLandfill Taxes/LeviesPlastic Bag InitiativesPackaging Producer Responsibility in the EUCharges for Port Reception FacilitiesChoosing Economic InstrumentsConclusionsRegulation and Management of Marine LitterIntroductionInstruments of Marine Litter at International, Regional and National LevelsGeneral Mechanisms of InstrumentsExamples of Instruments on Marine LitterInternational InstrumentsRegional InstrumentsNational InstrumentsTypes of Management Measures to Combat Marine LitterPreventive MeasuresMitigating MeasuresRemoving MeasuresBehavior-Changing MeasuresPotential Gaps in Marine Litter ManagementRecommendationsConclusionThe Contribution of Citizen Scientists to the Monitoring of Marine LitterIntroductionMarine Litter Studies Supported by Citizen ScientistsComparison of Citizen Science and Professional Science Studies on Marine LitterResearch TopicSpatial ScaleTemporal ScaleRegions Where Studies Have Been DoneData Collection and Quality Control of Citizen-Science StudiesPreparation of Easy and Straight-Forward ProtocolsTraining of VolunteersIn Situ Supervision by ProfessionalsValidation of Data and SamplesRecommendations for Citizen-Science Projects on Marine LitterOutlook and Conclusions
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