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A short course of lectures
«Marine Anthropogenic Litter»





Feeding BiologyPersistence of Plastic Litter in the OceansGranular ParticlesGlobal Distribution, Composition and Abundance of Marine LitterInteraction of Microspheres and Nanoparticles with Cells and TissuesInteractions of Microplastics with Marine OrganismsSpatial ScaleFloating Marine DebrisComposition of Rafting Assemblages on Floating LitterRaman SpectroscopyImpacts from Species DispersalMobilityDecomposition and DisintegrationThe Early 1970s—Pellets and Other Problems in the North AtlanticRemoving MeasuresMarine Litter and Economic IncentivesPlanktonic InvertebratesIndirect Physical Effects of Plastic IngestionLandfill Taxes/LeviesBiological Traits of Rafting Invertebrates on Floating LitterFloating Litter as a HabitatModelling the Distribution of MicroplasticsSpecific Challenges in Nanoplastic Effect ResearchLaboratory Preparation of SamplesCleaning ProductsSources of NanoplasticIntentional IngestionVisual Quantification of MicroplasticsRegions Where Studies Have Been DoneA Brief History of Marine Litter ResearchInternational InstrumentsBisphenol a and Human HealthAgricultureSpatial VariabilityEstimating the Economic Impacts of Marine LitterMaterials and MethodsChemical Effects from Plastic IngestionResultsPhoto-Oxidative DegradationWays of EntanglementIV Socio-economic Implications of Marine Anthropogenic LitterSeafloorMitigating MeasuresPreparation of Easy and Straight-Forward ProtocolsAssessing the Risks that Microand Nanoplastics Pose to Human HealthPlastic Debris, Environmental Chemical Contaminants and Environmental FateFate of Plastics Entering the OceansMethodology Used for the Detection and Identification of Microplastics—A Critical AppraisalThe Economics of Marine LitterIngestion of Microand Nanoplastics and Uptake Across the GutAccidental and Secondary IngestionMicroand Nano-plastics and Human HealthPotential Gaps in Marine Litter ManagementOccurrence of Microand Nanoplastics in the EnvironmentDeleterious Effects of Litter on Marine LifeProcess of AccumulationThe Contribution of Citizen Scientists to the Monitoring of Marine LitterMarine Litter Studies Supported by Citizen ScientistsDefinitions of MicroplasticsIn Situ Supervision by ProfessionalsMicroplasticsDetection and Occurrence of NanoplasticBioaccumulationBeach Cleaning, Tourism and RecreationWeathering Under Marine ConditionsPlastics and Human HealthSummarizing Discussion and RecommendationsImpacts of Plastic IngestionData Collection and Quality Control of Citizen-Science StudiesMarine MammalsThe Complex Mixture, Fate and Toxicity of Chemicals Associated with Plastic Debris in the Marine EnvironmentFate of NanoplasticInstruments of Marine Litter at International, Regional and National LevelsMedicinesNanopolymers and NanofillersVisual IdentificationPreventive MeasuresDensity Separation with Subsequent C:H:N AnalysisHazards Associated with the Complex Mixture of Plastic and Sorbed PollutantsInto the Southern HemisphereFrançois Galgani, Georg Hanke and Thomas MaesFPA-based Micro-FTIR Analysis of Pre-extracted Particles in Sediment SamplesTypes of Management Measures to Combat Marine LitterFood Web TransportMicroplastics in the Atlantic OceanMicroand NanoplasticsMicroplastics in the Pacific OceanResearch TopicMarine Litter as Habitat and Dispersal VectorFisheriesSediment SamplesPlastic Degradation and the Microplastic BoomModel-Based Assessment of Implications and Risks of Plastic-Associated ChemicalsMechanisms of Photo-OxidationCompositionBiotaTrophic TransferSources and Pathways of Microplastics to HabitatsIR SpectroscopyMicroand Nanoplastics and Human HealthIngestion of PlasticShipping and YachtingFloating Litter as Dispersal VectorRecommendationsWhat Kinds of Plastics Are in Use?Microplastic Effect on HabitatsThe Accumulation of Chemicals on Plastic Debris in the Marine EnvironmentPyrolysis-GC/MSSuccession of the Rafting CommunityExtraction of MicroplasticsMitigation Measures and Long-Term Changes in Marine LitterGlobal TransportIdentification of Microplastics by Their Chemical CompositionInteractions with Biological Materials and CellsImplications and RecommendationsRegional InstrumentsComparison of Citizen Science and Professional Science Studies on Marine LitterDiscussionMicroplastics in Polar RegionsIII MicroplasticsReproductive TraitsBioaccumulation and EffectsBenthic InvertebratesII Biological Implications of Marine LitterHuman HealthEntanglementLeaching of Toxic Chemicals from PlasticsRecommendations for Citizen-Science Projects on Marine LitterBeachesAloha—The Marine Debris ConferencesShifting Focus to the North Pacific OceanSubtidal SedimentsValidation of Data and SamplesMicroplastics in the OceansBehavior-Changing MeasuresSources, Detection and Occurrence of NanoplasticSea BirdsSampling for MicroplasticsMicroplastics in the Marine Environment: Distribution, Interactions and EffectsBuoyancy and Sampling ErrorsAquacultureSample PurificationTraining of VolunteersSpatial and Temporal Patterns in the Abundance of MicroplasticsIdentification of MicroplasticsHazards Associated with Plastic IngredientsVariability by Plastic Type and SizePlastics and Their Chemical IngredientsFishRate of AccumulationCase StudyExamples of Instruments on Marine LitterFPA-based Micro-FTIR SpectroscopyIngestionPlastic Marine Debris: A Complex Mixture of ChemicalsCharges for Port Reception FacilitiesSediment SamplingImplications of Chemicals and Nanofillers Associated with NanoplasticsSize FractionationRegulation and Management of Marine LitterNovel Polymer FormulationsBioaccumulation and Effects of NanoplasticsComparisons with Other Environmental MediaBeachesPlastic Debris as a Sink for Environmental ContaminantsNational InstrumentsDirect Mortality Caused by Plastic IngestionModeling the Role of Microplastics in Bioaccumulation of Organic Chemicals to Marine Aquatic Organisms. A Critical ReviewWater SamplesSmotheringOther Species Attracted to Marine LitterDefining Sources and Pathways of MicroplasticSeabirds and Seals—The First Signs of TroubleTaxonomic OverviewWays of Plastic IngestionPlastic Debris as a Source of Environmental ContaminantsLarger Plastic LitterGeneral Mechanisms of InstrumentsSea TurtlesExtraction of MicroplasticsModels to Assess the Importance of Microplastic IngestionSafer Alternatives to BPADistributionChain of Impacts Related to Plastic IngestionEffects of EntanglementAnticipated Future TrendsPlastic Bag InitiativesMicroplastics in European Seas and the Mediterranean SeaTemporal ScaleEquilibrium PartitioningNanoplastics in the Aquatic Environment. Critical ReviewChoosing Economic InstrumentsThe Global Distribution of Microplastics in the SeaMicroplastics in the Indian Ocean and Marginal SeasPackaging Producer Responsibility in the EUTextilesToxicity of Plastic Debris to Marine LifeI Abiotic Aspects of Marine Litter PollutionMicroplastics in the Marine Environment: Sources, Consequences and Solutions
 
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