Ways of Entanglement
The term “ghost fishing” has been established for lost or abandoned fishing gear (Breen 1990). Ghost nets may continue to trap and kill organisms and can damage benthic habitats (Pawson 2003; Good et al. 2010). Important factors, increasing the risks of entanglement, are the size and structure (Sancho et al. 2003) of the lost nets and their location. For example, nets that are stretched open by structures on the sea bed, tend to catch more organisms (Good et al. 2010). The estimated time, over which lost fishing gear continues to entangle and kill organisms varies substantially and is site and gear specific (Kaiser et al. 1996; Erzini 1997; Hébert et al. 2001; Humborstad et al. 2003; Revill and Dunlin 2003; Sancho et al. 2003; Tschernij and Larsson 2003; Matsuoka et al. 2005; Erzini et al. 2008; Newman et al. 2011). Matsuoka et al. (2005) estimated catch durations of derelict gilland trammel-nets from different studies between 30 and 568 days. Ghostfishing efficiency can sometimes decrease exponentially (Erzini 1997; Tschernij and Larsson 2003; Ayaz et al. 2006; Baeta et al. 2009). For example, Tschernij and Larsson (2003) found 80 % of the catch in bottom gill nets in the Baltic Sea during the first three months. Still, the nets continued fishing at a low rate until the end of the experiment after 27 months. Lost fishing gear can carry on trapping, until it is heavily colonised, altering weight, mesh size and visibility (Erzini 1997; Humborstad et al. 2003; Sancho et al. 2003). In deeper waters, ghost fishing seems to continue for longer periods of time, as fouling takes longer (Breen 1990; Humborstad et al. 2003; Large et al. 2009). A reduction of the duration of ghost fishing by using degradable materials unfortunately also affects the operational lifetime of equipment. However, easily replaced degradable escape cords in lobster traps may reduce ghost fishing of lost traps efficiently (Antonelis et al. 2011).
In addition to entanglement in derelict fishing gear, other anthropogenic material such as ropes, balloons, plastic bags, sheets and six-pack drink holders can cause entanglement (e.g. Plotkin and Amos 1990; Norman et al. 1995; Camphuysen 2001; Matsuoka et al. 2005; Gomercˇic´ et al. 2009; Votier et al. 2011; Bond et al. 2012; Moore et al. 2009, 2013; Rodríguez et al. 2013).
Whales and dolphins tend to become entangled around their neck, flippers and flukes, often in several types of fishing gear (Moore et al. 2013; Van der Hoop et al. 2013). Seals become frequently entangled in synthetic fishing gear, packing straps or other loop-shaped items that encircle the neck at young age and create problems during growth (Fowler 1987; Lucas 1992; Allen et al. 2012) (see Fig. 4.2). Seabirds are well known to become entangled around the bill, wings and feet with rope-like materials, which constrains their ability to fly or forage properly (Camphuysen 2001; Rodríguez et al. 2013) (Fig. 4.1). In addition to entanglement in fishing gear and other debris (Bugoni et al. 2001) marine turtles face problems on beaches where hatchlings are prone to entanglement or entrapment in marine debris on their way to the sea (Kasparek 1995; Ozdilek et al. 2006; Triessing et al. 2012). Motile benthic organisms become primarily caught in derelict traps on the seafloor (Adey et al. 2008; Erzini et al. 2008; Antonelis et al. 2011; Anderson and Alford 2014; Bilkovic et al. 2014; Kim et al. 2014; Uhrin et al. 2014) (Fig. 4.3a) although sometimes escape has also been observed (Parrish and Kazama 1992; Godøy et al. 2003). If there is no possibility of escape, animals in these traps and pots die from starvation (Pecci et al. 1978) and serve as bait, which attracts new victims (Kaiser et al. 1996; Stevens et al. 2000; Hébert et al. 2001).
Fig. 4.1 Northern gannet entanglement. On a nest on Helgoland, Germany (top), on a beach on Texel, The Netherlands (bottom left) and with fishing nets wrapped around the neck (bottom right) (Photos: J.A. van Franeker (1, 2) and S. Kühn (3), IMARES)
Behavioural traits can be important factors in becoming entangled (Shaughnessy 1985; Woodley and Lavigne 1991). It has been suggested that sharks become entangled when investigating large floating items and when searching for food associated with clumps of lost fishing gear (Bird 1978). Prey fish, which use debris as a shelter, can increase entanglement risks for predators, such as sharks (Cliff et al. 2002) and fish (Tschernij and Larsson 2003). The 'playful' behaviour of marine mammals may increase the risk of entanglement (Mattlin and Cawthorn 1986; Laist 1987; Harcourt et al. 1994; Zavala-González and Mellink 1997; Hanni and Pyle 2000; Page et al. 2004). Zavala-González and Mellink (1997) and Hanni and Pyle (2000) explained a higher incidence of entanglement
Fig. 4.2 Marine Mammal entanglement and plastic ingestion. Stomach contents of Dutch harbour seals (top), entangled grey seal (bottom left) and harbor seal (Texel, The Netherlands, bottom center), Antarctic fur seal investigating a rope (Cape Shirreff, Antarctica, bottom right) (Photos: J.A. van Franeker (1, 2, 3) and E. Bravo Rebolledo (6) IMARES; S. de Wolf (4, 5), Ecomare)
in younger California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) by playful behaviour and curiosity in combination with lack of experience and a foraging habit closer to the water surface. Age plays a significant role in pinnipeds, as younger seals are more often entangled than adults (Lucas 1992; Henderson 2001; Hofmeyr et al. 2006).
Gannets and many other seabird species use seaweed to build their nests, but are known to frequently incorporate ropes, nets and other anthropogenic debris (Podolski and Kress 1989; Montevecchi 1991; Hartwig et al. 2007; Votier et al. 2011; Bond et al. 2012; Lavers et al. 2013; Verlis et al. 2014) (Fig. 4.1). Marine debris used in nest construction increases the risk of mortal entanglement for both adult birds and chicks (Fig. 4.1). In three of the six North American gannet populations, close to 75 % of the gannet nests contained fi debris. Its frequency can be linked to the level of gillnet fi effort in the waters around the colonies (Bond et al. 2012).
Fig. 4.3 Effects of litter on organisms on the seafl . a Crab entangled in derelict net and b fi ing net wrapped around coral, NW Hawaiian Islands (Photo: NOAA); c plastic fragment entangled in trawled sponge (Cladorhiza gelida) from HAUSGARTEN observatory (Arctic), 2,500 m depth (Photo: M. Bergmann, AWI); d rubbish bag wrapped around deep-sea gorgonian at 2,115 m depth in Astoria Canyon (Photo: © 2007, MBARI); e Mediterranean soft-sediment habitat at 450 m depth smothered with plastic litter (Photo: F. Galgani, AAMP); f evidence of plastic fragment causing disturbance and biogeochemical changes at the sediment-water interface by dragging along the seabed of the Molloy Deep, HAUSGARTEN IX, at 5,500 m depth (Photo: M. Bergmann, AWI); g cargo net entangled in a deep-water coral colony at 950 m in Darwin Mounds province with entrapped biota (Photo: V. Huvenne, National Oceanography Centre Southampton)