Other Species Attracted to Marine Litter

Fishes and other marine vertebrates and invertebrates are known to aggregate around floating objects at sea (for example Hunter and Mitchell 1967; Taquet et al. 2007). Aliani and Molcard (2003) observed dolphins, sea turtles and fish below larger items (mostly plastics) in the Mediterranean. Fish that aggregate below rafts (of natural or anthropogenic origin) may also become dispersed over long oceanic distances, occasionally even crossing oceanic barriers (Luiz et al. 2012). Possibly, the increasing number of observations of raft-associated fish species near oceanic islands (e.g. Afonso et al. 2013) is due to increasing densities of floating litter in these regions (e.g. Law et al. 2010). It is still not well known why fish aggregate around floating objects, especially because they are rarely observed feeding on organisms living on flotsam (e.g. Ibrahim et al. 1996). On the other hand, fish and shark bite marks in plastic litter might indicate that fishes prey actively on the biota on floating litter (Winston et al. 1997; Carson 2013). A review by Castro et al. (2002) concludes that the reasons why fish aggregate around floating objects, and especially macroalgae assemblages, may be manifold, including serving as a refuge, a source for food, and a meeting point for solitary fish. Seabirds may accidentally ingest litter items if they confuse artificial flotsam such as Styrofoam with food (e.g. van Franeker 1985; Kühn et al. 2015). Some species may also ingest litter while feeding on the organisms growing on small litter items.

Succession of the Rafting Community

The colonization of artificial floating substrata follows a general pattern that has been investigated experimentally in several studies (Ye and Andrady 1991; Artham et al. 2009; Bravo et al. 2011; Lobelle and Cunliffe 2011): first, a biofilm consisting of bacteria and biopolymers develops within hours after submergence. This first phase is primarily controlled by the physico-chemical properties of the substratum (such as rugosity and hydrophobicity) whereas biological processes seem less important at this stage (Artham et al. 2009). The exact development and composition of the biofilm is highly variable, even on similar substrata at the same site (Ye and Andrady 1991) and probably influenced by seasonal (Artham et al. 2009) and other environmental variables (temperature, salinity—Carson et al. 2013). The composition of the initial colonizer assemblage affects the further succession of the fouling community (Ye and Andrady 1991; Bravo et al. 2011), although bryozoans readily colonize clean substrata without a biofilm (Maki et al. 1989; Zardus et al. 2008). In general, invertebrates and macroalgae may colonize submerged substrata within three to four weeks (Ye and Andrady 1991; Bravo et al. 2011). Results from a fouling experiment conducted by Dean and Hurd (1980) suggest that initial colonization of organisms on artificial substrata may facilitate some later arrivers but inhibit others.

The settlement of invertebrates seems to depend mainly on the availability of propagules (larvae and juveniles) in the surrounding environment (Stevens et al. 1992 cited by Winston et al. 1997; Barnes 2002) but less on the distance from the coast (Barnes 2002). Further information on later successional stages of rafting communities on floating litter has been collected from floating and stranded

Fig. 6.6 Succession of a rafting community on floating objects, among them marine litter. The y-axis gives the share of the respective taxa in terms of abundance. Higher invertebrates are mainly represented by amphipods. Modified after TsikhonLukanina et al. (2001)

substrata and from experiments: during an experimental exposure of different plastic items for 13–19 weeks, an initial biofilm with green algae was replaced after seven weeks by hydroid colonies followed by bryozoans and ascidians (Ye and Andrady 1991). Bravo et al. (2011) found a peak in taxonomic richness on abiotic substrata (plastics, Styrofoam and pumice) that had been submerged for eight weeks. The community was initially dominated by diatoms, whereas later successional stages were characterized by hydrozoans (mainly Obelia sp.), barnacles (Austromegabalanus psittacus) and an ascidian (Diplosoma sp.). TsikhonLukanina et al. (2001), studying natural and anthropogenic flotsam in the western North Pacific, recognized a bryozoan-dominated phase with a higher abundance of polychaetes and gastropods, followed by a lepadid barnacle phase with a higher incidence of malacostracan crustaceans, especially amphipods (Fig. 6.6). Turbellarians increased in abundance and biomass throughout the experimental duration. Winston et al. (1997) found no signs of succession on beached litter in Florida and Bermuda, which may have been obscured by the state of desiccated animals. In contrast to the initial biofilm formation, later successional stages are much more controlled by biological processes. For example, the bryozoan Electra tenella occurs exclusively on plastic items (floating off the U.S. Atlantic coast), thereby avoiding competition, mainly with Membranipora tuberculata, which frequently overgrows E. tenella on natural substrata (Winston 1982).

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