Outlook and Conclusion

In the future, contamination by microplastic is likely to continue to increase. Populations of humans are predicted to double in the next 40 years (UN 2008) and further concentrate in large coastal cities that will discharge larger volumes of sewage into marine habitats. The last case study provides a useful approach for identifying and quantifying sources and pathways of microplastic that should be extended to other sources, including medical and cleaning products, by screening sewage, storm water, habitats, wildlife and humans for the types of microplastic found in these products.

In parallel to this, I believe work is needed to reduce and eliminate sources and pathways of microplastic through (i) establishing and controlling inventories of materials; (ii) modifying the process of production by redesigning products so that they contain less hazardous substances; and (iii) using novel equipment and technology. This section now explores some of current opportunities for the public, scientists, engineers, industry and government to reduce sources and pathways of microplastic.

(i) Establishing and controlling inventories that detail the use and emissions of microplastics in products. Inventories are frequently used by European (EA 2012) and U.S. government agencies (EPA 2010, 2012) to control emissions of pollutants. An open-access online inventory is urgently required for textiles, medicines and cleaning products containing microplastic so that we have accurate information about emissions of microplastic during their production, use and disposal. This should include information about the use and emissions of microplastic, in terms of dimensions of size (i.e. minimum, maximum, median, mode and mean) shape, numbers, mass, types of polymers and sales figures. Because industry has, on occasion, been unwilling to provide this information when requested (Rosner 2008), this will probably require a change in policy and specific funding for representative sampling so that measures are accurate and precise (Figs. 9.10 and 9.11).

(ii) Modifying the process of production and redesigning products so that they contain less hazardous substances. Currently there are no published data on the effectiveness of modifying the process of production of products to reduce emissions of microplastic, since microplastic is not currently considered hazardous by policy-makers (Rochman et al. 2013). In response to advocacy from scientists and activists, several companies who make domestic cleaning products (e.g. Unilever, Johnson & Johnson) have agreed to replace microplastic with non-plastic particles. It is, however, unclear what alternatives they will use (Alumina; pumice; seeds of strawberries, blueberries, cranberry, evening primrose, grapes, kiwi or raspberry; stones of apricots, avocados, olives or peaches; peel of oranges or mandarin; castor or jojoba beads, shells of cocoa, coconuts, almonds or walnuts; coir; corn cob; salt; sugar; luffa, rice; macadamia nuts) or whether they will be more or less toxic to humans and wildlife, so scientific research is needed to find the most cost-effective alternative. Similar research is needed within the textile and clothing industry so that they produce cost-effective clothing that sheds fewer and less toxic fibres.

Fig. 9.10 Sources and pathways of fibres from textiles into habitats. Gray arrows indicate hypothesized pathways, black arrows indicate research that has been showing evidence of these pathways

Fig. 9.11 Overview of sources and pathways of microplastic to habitats. Gray arrows indicate hypothesized pathways, black arrows indicate research that has been showing evidence of these pathways

These types of research are important to ensure decisions by policy-makers are based on robust scientific information as opposed to untested perceptions of the hazards of synthetic materials over those made from natural products.

(iii) Novel equipment and technology to reduce pathways of microplastic. Filters for washing machines are a promising prospect for reducing emissions of fi

to sewage (environmentalenhancements.com); however, their effectiveness in reducing emissions has not been tested as yet. Work is also needed to determine how effective different types of sewage treatment are at removing the different sizes, shapes and types of polymers that represent the microplastic found in sewage. However, unless the microplastic can be isolated from the sludge or effl there are still likely to be problems because sewage is added to soil as a fertilizer. To identify the place, company or product where the microplastic originates requires government, industry and scientists to work together and share information. For this to happen there needs to be policies that (i) provide funded frameworks to measure (and if necessary manage) sources and pathways of microplastic into the environment; (ii) balance the needs of industries, society and the environment. In the U.S., 16 persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals (i.e. aldrin, benzoperylene, chlordane, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, isodrin, lead, mercury, methoxychlor, octachlorostyrene, pendimethalin, pentachlorobenzene, polychlorinated biphenyl, tetrabromobisphenol A, toxaphene and trifl are controlled in this way using the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act 1986. The Community Right-toKnow provisions help to increase public's knowledge and access to information on chemicals at individual facilities, their uses, and releases into the environment. Through this facilities are obliged to share information with government, scientists and public to improve chemical safety and protect public health and the environment. Similar requirements are required in Europe under article 5 of the Directive 2008/105/EC where member states are obliged to establish an inventory of emissions, discharges and losses of priority pollutants listed in part A of Annex I (EU 2012). For microplastic, several other solutions could also help. For instance, polymers could be designed with unique chemical fi gerprints (that identify particular sites of production or use), which remain even after the polymer has been physically or chemically degraded during its time in the environment. Alternatively, prior to a product being licensed for sale on the market place, information on the composition of polymers (and additives) in commercial applications could be made available to environmental scientists so that the environmental sources and pathways of materials can be quantifi and managed if needed. Whatever developments take place, hypothesis-driven frameworks are required to identify and falsify sources and pathways.

In conclusion, if we are to use terms to describe the sources of microplastic they should aim to identify the origin (e.g. larger plastic litter, cleaning products, medicines, textiles, etc.) and separate terms should be used for the pathways (e.g. storm water, sewage). As researchers use more integrated hypothesis-driven frameworks and the chemical methods and inventories improve, it may be possible to be more specific (e.g. the place, person or company).

Acknowledgments I am grateful to Mary Sewell (University of Auckland, New Zealand) for providing pictures of microplastic found in cleaning products. I thank the reviewers for their constructive comments.

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