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Sources, Detection and Occurrence of Nanoplastic

Sources of Nanoplastic

Primary sources of NPs may relate to release from products and applications, in which nanoplastics are used or formed and that result in emissions to the environment during the product life cycle. Product categories may include waterborne paints, adhesives, coatings, redispersible lattices, biomedical products, drug delivery, medical diagnostics, electronics, magnetics and optoelectronics. Recently, thermal cutting of polystyrene foam has been shown to emit nanometre-sized polymer particles, in the range of ~22–220 nm (Zhang et al. 2012). Many polymers undergo similar thermal treatments during their life cycle. 3-D printing has been shown to emit nanometre-sized polymer particles, in the range of ~11– 116 nm, at considerable rates (Stephens et al. 2013). Polystyrene and polyethylene nanoparticles are easy to synthesize (e.g. Lu et al. 2009; Rao and Geckeler 2011), are used for research and other applications and thus will find their way into the environment. Several medical applications include polymeric nanoparticles, nanospheres and nanocapsules, used for drug delivery (Guterres et al. 2007), which are, however, biodegradable solid lipids. Although formally within scope, we argue that such nanoplastics are not likely to be hazardous because of their low persistence in the environment. Cosmetic products are often mentioned in the context of nanoplastics. However, recent product inventories show lowest sizes of ~4 µm present in exfoliating scrubs or skin cleansers (Fendall and

Fig. 12.1 Scanning electron microscopy image of microand nano-sized polystyrene particles attached on surface of polystyrene spherule, which were fragmented from the expanded polystyrene spherules by accelerated mechanical abrasion (tumbling at 113 rpm in a glass bottle) with glass beads (3 mm in diameter) for a month. Nanometre-sized particles are indicated by yellow arrows

Sewell 2009), rendering these products as an unlikely primary source of NPs. A second speculated source is fragmentation of microplastic to smaller-sized particles eventually reaching the nanoscale (Andrady 2011). Electrospinning of engineered plastics is used to produce mats with nanoscale fibres, which when applied in products might degrade further to the nanoscale (Lu et al. 2008). Polymers consist of a mixture of polymer chains of various lengths. The chains are chemically linked by weak secondary bonds (i.e. hydrogen or Van der Waals bonding) or by physical interaction through entanglement of chains, whereas there is void space in between the chains. The weak interactions are susceptible to breakage at a low energy level. This breakage brings embrittlement, which in combination with other external forces such as friction may cause formation of small particles in the nano-, microand millimetre size range, at the surface of the plastics. Shim et al. (2014) were the first to actually report fragmentation of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads to microand nano-sized EPS in experiments involving a month of accelerated mechanical abrasion with glass beads and sand. Formation of nanometre-sized EPS was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (Fig. 12.1). Without yet even taking UV exposure into account, these experimental conditions may already mimic conditions at beaches or river banks where prolonged abrasion of macroand microplastics by sand particles possibly leads to the formation of NPs. The combination of photo-oxidation by UV exposure, high temperature and high humidity at beaches probably enhances fragmentation rates and reduces the size of the plastic particles. However, the occurrence and relative importance of this process still has to be validated in the field. Still, given the available information, we suspect that physical abrasion is a relevant source of NPs.

Although not proven, degradation of microplastics down to the <100 nanometrescale may constitute a third source of NPs. Slow weathering by photodegradation is well known for all kinds of polymers (Sivan 2011), which is the reason that nanocomposites use manufactured nano-particles (nanofi to increase the resistance to oxidation (e.g. Grigoriadou et al. 2011; Bussière et al. 2013). UV-B irradiation aided photo-oxidation of LDPE has been shown to lead to the formation of extractable oxygenated compounds as well as non-oxidised low-molecular weight hydrocarbons, which were utilized by bacteria leading to an LDPE mass loss of 8.4 % in 14 days (Roy et al. 2008). The LDPE fi subsequently were too fragile to handle. In a recent environmental study, degradation of 1–1.75 % of PE mass was observed in the laboratory in 30 days, by micro-organisms isolated from marine waters present at high densities (Harshvardhan and Jha 2013). Koelmans (2015) suggested that a surface degradation based particle shrinking model may be applied to assess the time dependence of the loss of plastic volume. Using this model and laboratory volume loss rate data from Harshvardhan and Jha (2013), we calculated the time scales required to reach the 100 nm nanoscale as a function of initial plastic particle size. It appears that if oxidation/degradation of the plastic surface would be the rate-limiting process, the rather optimal conditions in the laboratory still would predict that ca. 320 years are needed to bring 1 mm (1000 μm) microplastics to the 100 nm nanoscale (Fig. 12.2). In the oceans, degradation can be assumed to proceed

Fig. 12.2 Time required to reach the nanoscale (100 nm) by joint photo-oxidation and biodegradation at the polymer surface, as a function of initial microplastic particle size. The scenario calculation assumes particle shrinking due to photo-oxidation and biodegradation only, and neglects embrittlement and erosion. The reaction rate is proportional to the surface area with rate constant, k′ as in dV(t) = −k′A(t)dt with V (m3), and A (m2) are particle volume and surface area, respectively. The 'Lab scenario' is based on a mass loss of ~1 % low density polyethylene (LDPE) per month as observed under laboratory conditions by Harshvardhan and Jha (2013). It appears that a particle of 1000 μm (1 mm) diameter requires about 320 years to reach a diameter of 100 nm. In the oceans, degradation can be assumed to proceed much slower due to limited availability of light, oxygen and bacteria

much slower due to limited availability of light, oxygen and bacteria. Microbial or photodegradation at the water surface thus may contribute to the formation of smaller particles, yet reaching the nanoscale may take a long time. We are not aware of studies showing NP formation due to these processes. Nano-fragmentation thus may involve two mechanisms; (1) direct nano-fragmentation may take place at the surface of macroand microplastics (major process) and further gradual size-reductions may take place due to degradation (minor process). The different time scales of the two processes imply that embrittlement followed by physical abrasion of microplastics probably is the most important process explaining the formation of NPs.

Detection and Occurrence of Nanoplastic

We are not aware of studies reporting established analytical methods to detect nanoplastics in marine or freshwater. Under controlled conditions in the laboratory, several methods that apply to nanomaterials in general are also useful for nanoplastic fate and effect research, such as UV-VIS spectrometry, electron microscopy, field flow fractionation (FFF) or dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques, each having their advantages and flaws (Von der Kammer et al. 2012). Shim et al. (2014) used SEM-EDS to confirm the presence of nanoplastics in abrasion experiments. In their effect study with mussels (Mytilus edulis), Wegner et al. (2012) used multiple wavelength UV-VIS as a proxy to detect pink-dyed nanoparticles and used dynamic light scattering (DLS) to track the actual size of the bioavailable aggregates over time. Velzeboer et al. (2014a) used transmission EM and conventional light microscopy to characterise pristine nanopolystyrene particles and aggregates, respectively. A recent study applied FFF coupled to multi-angle light scattering with pyrolysis to discriminate between various plastic types in spiked natural surface water samples (Kools et al. 2014).

Since separation, concentration and identification of NPs in environmental samples is still difficult, the actual occurrence of NPs is still a matter of speculation even though recent literature takes it as a fact. In his review, Andrady (2011) stated that there is little doubt that nanoscale particles are produced during weathering of plastic debris, but acknowledges that they are not yet quantified. The evidence is circumstantial in that abrasion indeed seems to show formation of nanoplastics in the laboratory (Shim et al. 2014). A study by Cózar et al. (2014) identified a deficiency of plastic particles at the lower end of an expected size distribution in the oceans and argued that nanofragmentation might be a plausible explanation for this deficiency.

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