Human Health

Whilst the impact of marine litter on human health is a relatively new area of research this does not negate its potential for generating economic and welfare costs. At a local level ocean collisions with marine litter can seriously injure or kill mariners (Gold et al. 2013). This is particularly the case with impacts between smaller vessels and larger objects, such as semi-submerged lost shipping containers, which is a known danger to recreational sailors and fishers.

Plastic pollution poses a number of more nuanced risks, which could directly and indirectly impact on human health (Teuten et al. 2009; Thompson et al. 2009; Gold et al. 2013; UNEP 2014: p. 50; Galloway 2015). Firstly, the physical and chemical properties of polymers lends to their ability to facilitate the accumulation of contaminants already present in sea water. Industrial and agricultural chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and aqueous metals, have been linked to health impacts such as disease and reproductive abnormalities (Teuten et al. 2009). Marine litter acts as nuclei of accumulation for such toxins, which become several orders of magnitude more concentrated on the surface of plastics (EPA 2011). For instance, plastics can contain up to 1 million times the concentration of PCBs in contrast to sea water (Gold et al. 2013: p. 5; EPA 2013). Secondly, chemicals used in the production of polymers can increase local concentrations of harmful toxins which are also known to impact on health. Additives such as bisphenol A (BPA) and flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly found in plastic waste, can dissociate in the environment and are linked to endocrine disruption in both wildlife and humans (Gold et al. 2013). Both sources of chemicals increase the potential for bioaccumulation of toxins within food chains when marine litter is ingested by smaller organisms.

Thirdly, plastics could facilitate the transmission of, and act as a vector for, viral and bacterial diseases in areas where they would not naturally occur. In some locations plastic marine litter has developed its own habitat, the “plastisphere”, supporting organisms which differ from those in the surrounding water (Gold et al. 2013). Lippsett (2013) found a plastic sample dominated by bacteria, which cause cholera and gastrointestinal disease. Consequently invasive species and foreign substrates linked to marine litter could pose significant health threats. The economics of such health risks are difficult to formulate but figures are urgently needed to assess these additional cost associated with marine litter.

Summary

So far we have presented the results of recent research estimating the direct costs of marine litter to the key coastal and maritime economic sectors affected. Estimates of economic impacts on a national or regional scale are hard to come by, however. It is clear that we require more monitoring of the costs associated with marine litter, both in terms of direct costs incurred on losses to outputs and income, and in terms of assessing health, ecosystem services, wellbeing, and welfare impacts.

What is also very clear from this review is that marine litter exerts substantial economic impacts on coastal sectors, and that the polluters or producers of plastics do not pay for these costs. Furthermore, those who do pay are often operating with tight budgets, such as municipalities, small-scale agricultural businesses and fisheries. In addition, the costs described and quantified in the literature consist primarily of the costs of cleaning up marine debris or recovering from marine litter damage. As explained above, the cost of cleaning up is justified by the even higher costs of inaction. However, this expenditure does not address the underlying issue, and does not act to prevent litter from entering the marine environment in the first place. When prioritizing action and the allocation of funds, the costs of damage and clean up needs to be weighed against the cost of prevention.

 
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