The Handbook of Professional, Ethical and Research Practice for Psychologists, Counsellors, Psychoth

Professional practice and ethical considerationsIntroductionService user involvement, ethics and power in therapy servicesPutting personal experience into contextTherapy, ethics and service user involvementThe lack of user involvement in clinical therapy servicesThe challenge of getting our voice heardPower in therapy and user involvement settingsDeveloping a change in power relationships in clinical settings through user involvementConclusionAcknowledgementsReflective questionsNoteReferencesPsychological contracts: hidden agreements in life and at workThe roots of psychological contractsContractsThe psychological contractThe psychological contract at work in organisationsPsychological contracts - interpretative filtersManaging the psychological contractConclusionReferencesNew challenges for professional ethics and good practice guidelines for psychologists, psychotherapists and therapistsHannah Farndon and Nicola Gale - the British Psychological Society’s Practice GuidelinesResponse to changing contextChallenges in the workplaceWhen things go wrongCurrent societal challengesEquality, diversity and inclusionSarah Niblock - guidelines - UKCPBalancing virtue ethics and regulationAvoiding harmBenevolenceCandourCompetenceHonestyHuman rights and social justicePersonal accountabilityThe dangers of manualising ethicsNegotiating ethics in pluralistic organisationsConclusionReferencesLegal considerations and responsibilitiesClient confidentiality and data protectionTherapy and confidentialityPublic interest in maintaining confidentialityPublic interest in requiring disclosureStatutory duties to disclose client informationStatutory duties to protect client confidentialityGeneral data protection regulationAccess to confidential client materialAccess to confidential client material by the courtsConclusionNoteReferencesThe legal context of therapyStructure of the legal systemNegligence case lawContract lawStatute lawMental health lawMain emergency provisions of the Mental Health Act 1983Law relating to childrenMain provisions of the Children Act 1989ConclusionNoteReferencesWriting a report for use in Court and appearing in Court as a health professional and/or expert witnessWho may request a report and what sort of report?Professional reportsExpert witness reportsInstructionsPaymentFormat of the reportInformation that should be present in each of the sectionsCover pageIntroductionThe writerInstructions receivedInterviewClient’s account of the incident and subsequent eventsPersonal historyPrevious medical historyPsychometric test resultsDiscussionOpinionCausationPrognosisDeclaration/statement of truthSignature and date at the endAppendixAppearing in CourtReferencesRegulation, learning from complaintsHaving a complaint made against youImpact and triggers of complaintsTriggers for complaintsBreaches of confidentialityFailure to maintain appropriate boundariesFinancial exploitationFailure to terminate therapy in an appropriate mannerSerious professional misconductTherapist’s responseRegulation and sanctions for talking therapy practitioners (TTPs)Complaints and the public interest testProtection of the public. What is the public interest test and how is it applied?Complaints and the futureComplaints - a developmental learning toolConclusionReferencesClinical considerations and responsibilitiesFitness to practiseIntroductionFitness to practise - ethical frameworksBritish Psychological Society (BPS)British Association of Social Workers (BASW)Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych)United Kingdom Council for Psychotherapy (UKCP)British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP)Fitness to practise - common factorsSubstance usePhysical and mental healthStressLife eventsFitness to practise - responsibilitiesFitness to practise - taking actionConclusionReferencesThe role of social media in counselling and psychotherapyInternet technology in psychological therapySocial media and social network developmentsSocial media use in counselling and psychotherapyBoundaries of professional practice: therapist self-disclosurePrivacy, confidentiality and informed consent in social media useE-professionalism and resourcesSocial media policiesConclusionReferencesAdverse effects of psychological therapiesDefinitional issues relating to adverse effects of therapyPrevalence of adverse effectsUnderstanding the possible causes of adverse effectsIdentifying adverse effectsReducing the likelihood of adverse effects in clinical practiceWorking with adverse effects of therapyConsideration of adverse effects in supervisionConclusionReferencesWorking with diversity: professional practice and ethical considerationsEthical considerations when working with young peopleConsent and involvement in decision-makingWorking with the young person, family triad and agenciesConfidentiality and competencyCreating confidentiality agreementsDisclosure and reporting of risk - safeguardingSocial media and young peopleCyberbullyingConclusionReferencesProfessional and ethical issues in working with older adultsCurrent statisticsWorking with the older personGuidelines and competenciesAgeismA developmental perspectiveElder abuseEngagement and the therapeutic relationshipConfidentialityThe reflective and reflexive practitionerConclusionReferencesWorking with lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender peoplePresence in servicesPsychological distressDiversity within the LGBT populationLGBT people across the lifespanThe practitioner’s stanceApproaches to therapy and the therapeutic encounterBritish psychological society guidelinesConclusionReferencesProfessional and ethical practice in a multicultural and multiethnic societyIntroductionWhat is culture?Defining cultural competenceThe qualities of the culturally competent clinicianThe patient-based approachCurrent guidelinesAPA guidelinesEPA guidelinesRacism in the clinician-patient relationshipConclusionNoteReferencesResearch, supervision and trainingResearch in therapeutic practice settings: ethical considerationsDefining research in therapeutic settingsEthical considerations: where do they begin?Research designs in the therapeutic contextSmall-NQualitative studiesLarge-NData collection: challenges to ethical practiceInterviewsQuestionnairesEthical questioning and decision-making throughout the research processConclusionNotesReferencesEvidence-based practice: the ethical dimensionWhat is evidence based practice?Epistemology, values and competing interests in EBPHow applicable is the evidence in EBP?How complete and unbiased is the evidence base?ConclusionReferencesTeaching ethics for professional practiceProfessional ethics codesReconstructing ethicsThe personal and professionalTeaching ethicsEthical guidance and standards for professional trainingEthics in the curriculumVideo recording and public reflectingExperts by experiencePersonal and professional skills development (PPSD)Evaluating outcomes of ethics teachingAcademic workClinical workCritically reflecting on ethics teachingConclusionNotesReferencesTraining supervision: professional and ethical considerationsUnderstanding supervisionSupervision - consultative and trainingFormats of supervisionSupervision modelsLearning to be a superviseeThe supervisory relationshipSupervision and boundariesEstablishing the supervision contracting: bilateral agreementContracting - multilateral agreementVicarious responsibilityConfidentialityDual-role relationships within supervisionDisclosure and supervisionThe supportive role in supervisionConclusionReferencesTrainee perspectives on professional, ethical and research practiceBeing a traineeLength and scope of trainingTeaching professional and ethical issuesAnxieties about litigation or complaintsWhat are ethical dilemmas?Major themes raised by traineesPersonal therapyPersonal valuesGiftsWhistle blowingLevels of competenceDual roles/relationshipsBoundaries, confidentiality and issues of disclosureConclusionReferencesContinuing Professional Development (CPD): professional and ethical considerationsIntroductionUnderstanding CPDCPD cycle and professional bodies regulationsFacilitating and promoting CPD in the UKChallenges and limitationsConclusionReferencesClinical vignettes and reflective questionsSocial InclusionSocial justice theory and practiceSocial justice in practiceDifferent levels of action in practiceA phenomenological stanceThe therapeutic gazeAccessibility and engagementPractitioner’s own position in relation to powerConclusionReferencesEthical and professional issues in community psychologyWhat is community psychology?An alternative understandingA stance for social justicePraxisCollaborationParticipatory researchPrevention and social actionProfessional issues in community psychologyEthics and community psychologyDoing no harmDistribution of power and resourcesImposition of values and understandingsResponsibility for changeAccountabilityReflexivity and the avoidance of harmPotential challenges of ethical codesRelationships and boundariesConfidentialityInformed consentConclusionNoteReferencesResources and links
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