Temporal Scale

Citizen-science studies require a lot of organization. Accordingly, short-term studies are expected to be the most common among all citizen-science studies. Nevertheless, the time range of citizen-science studies vary from single events, up to a study of 27 years by van Franeker et al. (2011), who determined the abundance of ingested plastics by northern fulmars Fulmarus glacialis from the North Sea, as an indication of litter contamination. The majority of citizen-science studies (63 %) cover time periods ranging from less than 1–2 years, followed by studies between 5 and 10 years (20 %) (Table 16.3). Professional studies varied between single events up to a study on microplastics that compared recent samples with samples taken 40 years ago (Thompson et al. 2004). Interestingly, many professional studies were conducted only once, i.e. they spanned less than one year (53 %), whereas others ranged from 1 to 2 years (10 %) and 2 to 5 years (10 %), respectively. Three professional observational studies did not report the temporal scale of the investigation (Corcoran et al. 2009; Costa et al. 2010; Claessens et al. 2011) (Table 16.3).

Regions Where Studies Have Been Done

The problem of marine litter is widespread and has caused concern worldwide. However, global knowledge about marine litter is limited, because the majority of both citizen-science and professional studies on marine litter have been conducted in the northern hemisphere. Most citizen-science studies have been reported from Asia and South America (Fig. 16.3a). Professional studies have been conducted

Table 16.3 Comparison of the temporal scale of citizen-science (N = 40) and professional studies (N = 40)

Fig. 16.3 World map with representation of the number of studies per ecoregion (limits of ecoregions after Spalding et al. 2007), for (a) citizen-science and (b) professional studies

mainly in Europe and the North Pacifi Ocean (Hawaii and the North Pacifi gyre) (Fig. 16.3b). This reveals a lack of information on coastal regions of the southern hemisphere, such as Africa and South America, except Chile. However, in the near future, the combination of citizen-science and professional studies can be the key to achieving global knowledge about litter sources and quantities, especially for regions of the world where this information is still needed. Therefore, citizen science studies could be a good approach to help fi the last missing gaps on the world map.

 
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