Recommendations for Citizen-Science Projects on Marine Litter
In order to carefully plan a citizen-science study, certain models for developing studies should be followed (Bonney et al. 2009). The research question should be easy to understand by participants and should incorporate strategies to motivate volunteers (Eastman et al. 2014). High levels of personal motivation, training procedures, and encouraging volunteers to describe any uncertainties to researchers resulted in improved accuracy achieved by citizen scientists (Lindborg et al. 2012). The time commitment of the participation of individuals and organizations should be respected. Accordingly, project leaders should concede ample time for the recruitment and training of volunteers. Sampling methods and data collection should be easy to manage with simple tools (e.g. transects, quadrats). Technology, such as smartphone applications and geo-referenced photos can be a novel tool to explore (e.g. Martin 2013). It is strongly recommended that a professional scientist demonstrates the tasks that citizen scientists will be performing in the fi beforehand. Whenever possible, scientifi surveys themselves should be supervised by scientists in order to ensure proper sampling and data collection. Participants should also be involved in the data evaluation and communication of results as a concluding activity, because this will enhance their commitment to the activity. Considering these recommendations, citizen scientists are capable to collect relevant data, even showing no signifi difference with results gathered by experienced scientists (Thiel et al. 2014).
Outlook and Conclusions
The vast distribution of marine litter throughout the world requires extensive sampling efforts of research teams, and the available information is still limited to certain topics of research and regions of the world. In this respect, citizen-science projects have made important contributions to marine litter science. Collaborations with citizen scientists can be a useful approach to expand the understanding of marine litter in the world. Most studies have focused on the distribution and composition of marine litter, and beach cleanups are activities with the most active participation from citizen scientists.
Citizen science studies can cover a wide range of scales, from local to international range, single events to long-term multi-year projects. Through the use of citizen scientists, new research areas can be addressed in the future. Coastal marine litter may be monitored by citizen-science studies, which can also include other citizens related to the sea, such as local people, fishers, sport clubs and tourists. For instance, diver associations around the world can be trained to sample subtidal plastic debris, and new projects can be initiated with the help of sailing clubs, where long-distance travelers can survey floating marine debris by direct observation at sea, to study the distribution, composition and degradation of marine litter in the open ocean. Citizen scientists can help to determine local litter sources, thereby contributing to keeping coastal regions clean. Citizen-science projects can focus on interviewing mariners, coastal people and local governments, for the purpose of identifying ways to reduce marine litter deposition.
With proper coordination, citizen science can include several other topics, such as interaction with biota and toxic effects. Nevertheless, a main concern of marine citizen science is to assure the quality of the collected data. In general, studies should include several steps to ensure data quality, including clear protocols, training of volunteers, participation of professional scientists, and revision of samples and data. If these considerations are taken into account, citizen scientists not only can help with investigating the problem of marine litter, but they can become key allies in solving the problem of marine litter.
Acknowledgments It seems ironic that most professional scientists studying marine litter have initially been trained in marine biology, microbiology, oceanography or related disciplines. By having redirected their research attention to the problem of marine litter, they have demonstrated that they are true citizens of the oceans! With their fascination for the sea, they join the thousands of enthusiastic citizens all over the world who have contributed to some of the research discussed herein. We thank all the schoolchildren and teachers who have participated in the citizen science program “Científicos de la Basura” and who continue to motivate us every day in this quest for a clean ocean. We are also grateful to two anonymous reviewers and to Annie Mejaes who did the final language check of the manuscript.