The European Higher Education Area

The Future of Higher Education and “The European Level”A Special and “Predictable” Period of Developments in European Higher Education Is Coming to an End?Re-imagining the Future of Higher Education in Europe. What Can Research (and Researchers) Contribute?I Internationalization of Higher EducationInternationalization of Higher Education—What Can Research Add to the Policy Debate? [Overview Paper]IntroductionIts DevelopmentImpactThe FutureInput from the PapersInternationalization of Higher Education: Navigating Between Contrasting TrendsIntroductionServing National Priorities Versus Operating in an International SettingGovernment Steering Versus Institutional AutonomyIncreased Diversity Versus HarmonizationCompetition Versus CollaborationIntellectual Property Versus Intellectual PhilanthropyConcluding RemarksBalanced Mobility Across the Board— A Sensible Objective?Introduction“Balanced Mobility” in the Bologna Process Context—Some Critical ReflectionsThe OriginsThe CaveatsWhy “Balanced Mobility” in 2007?How Balanced Are EHEA Mobility Flows?Balance Between Total Inflows and Outflows per CountryBalance Within EHEABalance with Non-EHEA CountriesMore Balanced Flows—What Would This Entail?Conclusions: Balanced Mobility—A Reasonable Objective?Challenges of Student Mobility in a Cosmopolitan EuropeIntroductionThe CoSMiCE ProjectStudent Mobility in EuropeImpact Factors on European Student MobilityRecognitionRestrictions and FeesFinancial SupportSocial SupportMedia PerceptionBrain Drain and Brain GainConclusions and OutlookRedefining Internationalization at HomeIntroductionAccepted DefinitionsInternationalizationComprehensive InternationalizationInternationalization of the CurriculumContested DefinitionsInternationalization at Home and AbroadThe OECD Definition of an Internationalized CurriculumCampus InternationalizationInternationalization at HomeWhat Internationalization at Home MeansInternationalization at Home: The Emergence of the ConceptExisting DefinitionCritiques and AppreciationContinued Relevance of IaH as a ConceptNew Definition of Internationalization at HomeChallenges for Policy and ImplementationConclusionThe Impact of Exposure to Diversity in the International University Environment and the Development of Intercultural Competence in StudentsInternationalization as an Institutional Strategy for Intercultural Competence DevelopmentTheory and ConceptsThe Contact Hypothesis for Intergroup Contact as a Theoretical FrameworkDefining Intercultural CompetenceMeasuring the Development of Intercultural CompetenceA Tentative Model for Intercultural Competence DevelopmentThe University CaseMethodResultsDevelopment of Intercultural Competence After Nine Months of StudyPolarizationPerception of the Own Level of Intercultural CompetenceImpact of the Social EnvironmentConclusionsDiscussionInternationalisation as a Lever for Change: The Case of ItalyIntroductionSystemic Tradition of Central Planning and UniformityItalian Higher Education Response to the Bologna ProcessInternationalisation as a Lever for ChangeInstitutional ResponsesPatterns of Convergence and DivergenceDual AccountabilityIsomorphic TendenciesConclusionsBecoming Bologna Capable: Strategic Cooperation and Capacity Building in International Offices in Kazakhstani HEIsIntroductionTheoretical PerspectivesInternationalization of Higher EducationInstitutional ChangeCapacity Building and Professional DevelopmentKazakhstan ContextMethodologyResultsWhat Forms of Strategic Cooperation Are Considered Necessary for Effective Engagement in Achieving Bologna Process Goals?Do International Offices Have the Capacity to Engage Effectively in Strategic Cooperation for Bologna Process Goals?What Do International Office Staff Perceive as Necessary to Develop Their Professional Capacity to Achieve These Goals?DiscussionThe Potential for IO Leadership for Comprehensive InternationalizationThe Need to Increase IO Capacity for Bologna Process in Times of Institutional ChangeMaking Professional Development for International Office Staff a PriorityConclusionInternationalization Strategies and Policies in Second-Tier Higher Education InstitutionsIntroductionContextInternationalization in Higher EducationSecond-Tier Higher Education InstitutionsInternationalization in Second Tier InstitutionsCase Studies: Israel, the Netherlands and CanadaIsraelNetherlandsCanadaDiscussion and ConclusionII Higher Education Financing and GovernanceBackground Note for the Section on Financing and Governance [Overview Paper]Strategies for Efficient Funding of Universities in EuropeMethodologyFunding of Higher Education InstitutionsIncome StructuresPublic Funding ModalitiesPerformance-Based FundingFunding FormulaePerformance ContractsOverview of Performance Elements in Block Grant AllocationEffects of Performance-Based Funding on Higher Education SystemsFunding for ExcellenceCharacteristics of Excellence Schemes in Higher EducationImpact on Institutional Profiling and RestructuringThe Role of the University LeadershipExit Strategies for Institutions and SystemsEfficiency MeasuresTypes of Efficiency MeasuresEnabling FrameworksConclusionsFinancing Research Universities in Post-communist EHEA CountriesIntroductionHistorical OverviewComparative Study of Some HEIs from Different CountriesA Detailed Insight into the Hungarian R&D Financing in Higher EducationConclusion and RecommendationsPolicy Incentives and Research Productivity in the Romanian Higher Education. An Institutional ApproachIntroductionInstitutional Arrangements Within Romanian Higher EducationThe Problem of Increasing Research ProductivityThe Academic CareerThe Quality Assurance ProcessThe University Classification ExerciseThe New Public Funding MechanismMethodologyResearch Productivity and Its ImpactMethodsData Analysis and ResultsDiscussionConclusionPatterns of Funding Internationalisation of Higher Education. A Conceptual Framework for the Stud of InternationalisationIntroductionA Conceptual Framework for the Study of Patterns of Funding of InternationalisationSources of Funding InternationalisationTypes of Internationalisation Activities Funded (Motivations)Types of Internationalisation Activities Funded (Geographic Scope)Instruments of FundingFunding StrategiesConclusionsThe Evolving Landscape of South-East Asian Higher Education and the Challenges of GovernanceIntroductionThe Changing Landscape of Higher Education in South-East AsiaMassificationDiversificationMarketizationInternationalizationRestructuring Higher Education and the New Modes of Governance and FinanceGovernance StructuresFinance and BudgetHuman Resource ManagementAcademic MattersQuality AssuranceRegional Integration and the Efforts on Higher Education HarmonizationReform, Regionalization, and the Challenges for Future DevelopmentIII Excellence and Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' MissionsSeeking Excellence, Practicing Rankings, and Aiming at Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' Mission in the European Higher Education Area [Overview Paper]IntroductionExcellenceDiversificationRankingsConcluding RemarksReferencesExcellence-Driven Policies and Initiatives in the Context of Bologna Process:IntroductionRationale of Excellence-Driven Policies and InitiativesDesign of Excellence-Driven Policies and InitiativesImplementation and Outcomes of Excellence-Driven Policies and InitiativesConclusion: Excellence-Driven Policies, Higher Education Policies and Bologna ProcessThe Knowledge Society and Diversification of Higher Education: From the Social Contract to the Mission of UniversitiesIntroductionInstitutional Approach and Contextualization: Previous Research FindingsThe Taxonomy of the Third MissionThe Russell GroupPrime NetworkE3MDifferences and Similarities: The Third Mission as a TaskThird Mission Aspects in RankingsSummary and OutlookExcellence and Diversification of Higher Education Institutions' MissionsIntroductionSuggestions from RIO+20The Potential of RankingsConclusion“New” Rankings on the Scene: The U21 Ranking of National Higher Education Systems and U-MultirankIntroductionThe General Characteristics of RankingsThe Criticism of RankingsU21 Ranking of National Higher Education SystemsGeneral CharacteristicsEvaluation of U21U-MultirankThe General Characteristics and Strengths of U-MultirankChallengesConclusions: Rankings and the European Higher Education AreaIV Teaching, Learning and Student EngagementTeaching and Learning: An Overview of the Thematic Section [Overview Paper]Tensions in the Scholarship on Teaching and Learning and Emerging Research AgendasIntroducing the ChaptersRecommendations to the Policy MakersFindingsRecommendationsTeaching and Learning: A Journey from the Margins to the Core in European Higher Education PolicyIntroductionThe Wider Policy Space and the Propagation of Policy IssuesMethodTeaching and Learning as a Policy IssueTeaching and Learning Elements as Structural DescriptorsTeaching and Learning as PedagogyCurricular ReviewPedagogic Competence and the Professionalisation of TeachingConclusionsThe Meanings of Student Engagement: Implications for Policies and PracticesThe Problems of Defining Student EngagementThe Focus of Student EngagementThree Degrees of Student EngagementStudent Engagement as the Formation of UnderstandingStudent Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as ConsultationStudent Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as PartnershipStudent Engagement in the Formation of Understanding as LeadershipStudent Engagement in the Formation of CurriculaStudent Engagement in Curricula Formation as ConsultationStudent Engagement in Curricula Formation as PartnershipStudent Engagement in Curricula Formation as LeadershipStudent Engagement in the Formation of CommunitiesStudent Engagement in the Formation of Communities as ConsultationStudent Engagement in the Formation of Communities as PartnershipStudent Engagement in the Formation of Communities as LeadershipDiscussionImplications for Policy MakersHow Do We Know How Students Experience Higher Education? On the Use of Student SurveysIntroductionThe Changing Policy Context and Demand for Data on StudentsOverview of the Most Influential Student Experience and Engagement SurveysMethodological Limitations of Student Engagement and Experience SurveysStudent Surveys as Part of the Development of Student Data Analytics in Institutional ResearchRecommendations to Policy MakersUnderstanding Quality of Learning in Digital Learning Environments: State of the Art and Research NeededIntroduction: Towards a Theoretical Framework to Understand Teaching and Learning in HEDescribing and Understanding the Role of Student CharacteristicsDescribing and Understanding the Role of the Teaching and Learning EnvironmentUnderstanding Interactions Between Students and Their EnvironmentEvaluating Learning OutcomesConclusionAssessment of Learning OutcomesIntroductionA Growing Imperative for Transforming AssessmentTaking Stock of Existing Change InitiativesClearing Barriers to ProgressMaking Progress that CountsAssessment Redesign—A Tactic for ReformGiving Voice to Non-traditional Students “Walking” the Narative Mediation Path. An Interpretative Phenomenological AnalysisIntroductionMethodologyFindings from the Evaluative Study of the NMP TrainingDiscussions and ConclusionsV Social Dimension and Equity of Higher EducationEquity and the Social Dimension: An Overview [Overview Paper]IntroductionConclusionReferencesNo Future for the Social Dimension?IntroductionThe Past: Historical Development of the Social DimensionThe Present: How Is the Social Dimension Being Implemented?The Future: How Might the Social Dimension Be Developed?National Actions Plans for Access and Widening ParticipationIntegration of Local ContextsReform the Working Group on Social Dimension (and Lifelong Learning)Connecting the Social DimensionTargets for Data CollectionMonitoring, Advising and Peer LearningLearning and TeachingSocial InfrastructureWidening Participation Through Early Inclusion in Higher EducationEngaging All StakeholdersBottom-Up ApproachAvoiding Ongoing Risks to StudentsDiscussionA Comprehensive Approach to Investigating the Social Dimension in European Higher Education Systems—EUROSTUDENTand the PL4SD Country ReviewsBologna Process and Social DimensionSocial Dimension—Unique CharacterComprehensive Evaluation Approaches— EUROSTUDENT and PL4SDLooking at the Way Learning Opportunities Are Allocated Within an Education SystemBefore Entry to Higher EducationAt Entry to Higher EducationStudy FrameworkGraduation and TransitionFormative Evaluations of the Social Dimension as Possible Way ForwardHow Did the Latest Increase in Fees in England Affect Student Enrolment and Inequality?IntroductionThe 2012 ReformsCompeting Expectations About the Effects of the ReformsThe Pessimists' View: Lower Enrolment and Higher InequalityThe Optimists' View: Higher Enrolment and Lower InequalityResearch DesignPre-treatment TrendsStability in CompositionAnticipation Effects in Enrolment DecisionsData and ResultsFirst Year EnrolmentEnrolment for Different Age GroupsEnrolment for Different Social ClassesEnrolment for Different Ethnic GroupsDiscussion and ConclusionStruggling with Social Polarization. Student Financial Support in Romania in the Framework of the Bologna ProcessIntroductionThe Role of the Bologna Process, Equity and Student Support Schemes in Reducing Social PolarizationEquity in the Romanian Higher Education SystemSocial Disparities Among StudentsDo Student Support Systems (E.G. Student Scholarships) Increase the Level of Equity in Higher Education?The Romanian Student Support System: The Case of Student ScholarshipsDoes the Needs-Based Aid Fulfil the Equity Aim?How Many Students Are Supported by the Scholarship System?Who Are the Students Receiving Need Based Aid?Minimum Living Costs for StudentsConclusionsPremises of Inclusive Access and Success of Roma People in the Romanian Higher EducationNational ContextRoma People in StatisticsDiscrimination of Roma People in Society and the Educational EnvironmentNational and International Policies for Access to Education of Roma PeopleMethodologyResultsInfluence Factors on the Participation of Roma People to EducationThe Efficiency of Reserved Places for Roma People in Six Romanian UniversitiesLimitations of ResearchConclusions and RecommendationsVI Education, Research and InnovationBridging Education, Research and Innovation: The Pivotal Role of Doctoral Training [Overview Paper]European Doctoral Programs in Light of EHEA and ERAThe European Area of Higher EducationThe Third Cycle of Tertiary EducationThe BFUG Ad Hoc WG on the III CycleQuality in Doctoral TrainingDevelopment of Transparency ToolsEmployability of Doctoral GraduatesInternationalization and MobilityFundingDoctoral Programs: What for?The Italian Way to Doctoral ProgramsConclusionTuning Tools and Insights for Modern Competence-Based Third-Cycle ProgramsIntroductionModern Third Cycle Studies and TuningThe Tuning ProcessTuning MethodologyTuning Tools for the Third CycleCredits as a Planning Tool for the Third CycleEnhancing the Quality of Doctoral MobilityProfessional and Industrial DoctoratesFine and Performing Arts DoctoratesTuning Sectoral Qualifications FrameworksTuning Guide to Creating Degree Programme Profiles (CoRe2)Concluding RemarksEnhancing the Quality of Research in Europe: Theoretical Perspectives on and Guiding Principles for Researcher DevelopmentIntroductionUnderstanding Researcher DevelopmentTraining the “New Academic Generation”: Implications of Understanding Researcher Development and How It OccursPromoting Recognition of a 'Better Way'A “Better Way” for the European Researcher:Delineating the Characteristics of Excellent European Researchers: 'Extended' and 'Restricted' ProfessionalityThe Quality of Doctoral Training and Employability of Doctorate Holders: The Views of Doctoral Candidates and Junior ResearchersIntroductionEURODOC Survey I: BackgroundSampling and ProceduresEURODOC Survey I: FindingsType of Supervision and Training Opportunities: The Perceptions of Doctoral Candidates and Junior ResearchersCurrent Research Framework and Future Career Paths: Assessments Made by Doctoral Candidates and Junior ResearchersConclusionsThe Romanian PhD Students at CERN: The Bologna Process and BeyondIntroductionThe RO-CERN ProgrammeInterdisciplinary Research TeamsMulticulturalism and InternationalizationPersonal Research ContributionsConclusionsVII Quality AssuranceEuropean Quality Assurance—A European Higher Education Area Success Story [Overview Paper]IntroductionEuropean Universities Consider Quality Assurance an Important Strategic ReformEmerging Challenges for External Quality AssuranceEuropean Quality Assurance “Work in Progress”—The Revised European Standards and GuidelinesChanges and Challenges for the European Higher Education Landscape Have Implications for Quality AssuranceConclusionInternational Quality Reviews with an EQAR-Registered AgencyIntroductionNational Quality Assurance InfrastructureCase Study MethodologySampling Countries and Higher Education InstitutionsDesign of the Study and Conceptual FrameworkData Collection Methods and InstrumentsCase-Study Research QuestionsOverview of Case-StudiesThe National Context for the Selected Case StudiesCase-Study AnalysisThe Rationale Behind a Cross-Border EQASelection of a Suitable QAABenefits of a Cross Border EQAChallenges of a Cross-Border EQADiscussion on FindingsWhy Turn to a Cross-Border EQA?Internationalisation as a Driver for EQAESG as a Proxy for Trust Within EHEAAcronyms and GlossaryA Merry-Go-Round of Evaluations Moving from Administrative Burden to Reflection on Education and Research in RomaniaIntroductionEvaluation in Romanian UniversitiesMethodological ConsiderationsThe Policy ProblemEvaluations Are Perceived as Too BureaucraticAcademics and Students Do Not Feel Ownership Over EvaluationsEvaluations Are Perceived to Be Based on Inconsistent CriteriaRecommendations for National Policy-MakersObjective 1: Simplify the proceduresObjective 2: Allow professors and students to influence the standards for evaluationObjective 3: Apply a more consistent and open concept of 'quality'Recommendations for the UniversitiesObjective 1: Simplify the proceduresObjective 2: Allow professors and students to influence the standardsObjective 3: Apply a more consistent and open concept of 'quality'Concluding RemarksStudents as Stakeholders in the Policy Context of the European Standards and Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Higher Education InstitutionsIntroductionTheoretical Framework: Students as Stakeholders in Internal Quality AssuranceResearch Design and MethodologyData CollectionData AnalysisStudents' Role in the Studied Dutch FacultyStudents' Role in the Studied German InstituteDiscussionConclusionNegotiating Liminality in Higher Education: Formal and Informal Dimensions of the Student Experience as Facilitators of QualityIntroduction and Institutional BackgroundStudent Experience and the European Context—A Literature ReviewThe Student, 'Threshold Concepts' and LiminalityResearch Design and MethodologyResults and DiscussionOpening Up and Jumping Off a CliffDeveloping Approaches to Hearing the Student VoiceCreating a Student Experience OfficePromoting a Holistic Student ExperienceDeveloping New Strategies to Facilitate Improved Student Progression Through Liminal SpacesConclusionsVIII The Impacts of the Bologna Process on the EHEA and BeyondThe EHEA at the Cross-Roads. The Bologna Process and the Future of Higher Education [Overview Paper]IntroductionUnfinished BusinessBetween Wrapping Up and Launching New Policies: Bologna and the Rest of the WorldFuture PrioritiesGovernanceToward a ConclusionCurrent and Future Prospects for the Bologna Process in the Turkish Higher Education SystemIntroductionThe Bologna Process in Turkey: Implementation, Challenges and Lessons LearnedWhat Has Been Achieved? What Are the Challenges Ahead?Perceptions of Key Actors Toward the Implementation of the Bologna ProcessConcluding Remarks and RecommendationsRecommendations for the FutureThe Bologna Process Goes East?from “Third Countries” to Prioritizing Inter-regional Cooperation B etween the ASEAN and EUIntroductionRegionalism and Higher Education in ASEANRegionalism in ASEANASEAN Regional Higher EducationThe Bologna Process Goes East: From Policy Diffusion to Policy MutationThe Bologna Goes EastPolicy DiffusionPolicy Mobility and MutationConstitutive LocalizationASEAN Regional Harmonisation of Higher EducationAn Alternative Regional Model and Inspiration for EU-ASEAN Inter-regional CooperationFuture Scenarios for the European Higher Education Area: Exploring the Possibilities of “Experimentalist Governance”IntroductionUnpacking the New Modes of GovernanceMapping the Governance of the Bologna ProcessSetting Goals and Delegating ResponsibilitiesReporting and Peer ReviewCritical Re-evaluation and Policy LearningLessons for the EHEAResisting an “Epistemic Temptation”Revisiting the Role of European-Level StakeholdersRecasting the Higher Education Discourse of the European CommissionReframing National Higher Education Policy DebatesConclusionIX Evidence-Based Policies in Higher Education: Data Analytics, Impact Assessment and ReportingEvidence-Based Policies in Higher Education: Data Analytics, Impact Assessment and Reporting [Overview Paper]IntroductionOverview of the Contribution of the Papers to the ThemeConclusionHigher Education Research in EuropeIntroductionStages of Development of Higher Education ResearchHigher Education Research in Europe and Its Visibility in the English LanguageHigher Education Research not Visible in the Lingua Franca—The Case of GermanyThematic Areas of Higher Education ResearchTypes of Institutional Bases and AnalystsEuropean Communication and Cooperation Within Higher Education Research and with Higher Education Policy and PracticeConcluding ObservationsA Comparative Study on Cost-Sharing in Higher Education—Using the Case Study Approach to Contribute to Evidence-Based PolicyIntroductionCost-Sharing as Policy IssueMethod of the StudyHypothesesCase Studies and Comparative AnalysisDiscontinuity Countries with Big Shifts in Fee PolicyContinuity with Some Shifts in Fee PolicyAnalysis and ResultsEndnoteDoes Research Influence Educational Policy? The Perspective of Researchers and Policy-Makers in RomaniaIntroductionMethodsMethod and InstrumentParticipantsData AnalysisResults and DiscussionThe Research in Higher Education in RomaniaResearch ProductionResearch Activity Between Duty and VocationDiscussionConclusionsAt the Micro or Researcher's LevelAt an Intervention—Organizational LevelAt the Macro Systemic Level of Educational PoliciesChanged Academic Relationship Between Professors and Students at Uni Potsdam: Impact of Bologna 2011–2012IntroductionThe Bologna ProcessGerman Higher Education ReformsThe German ContextUniversity of PotsdamLiterature ReviewConceptual FrameworkMethodsResults and DiscussionContext and StructureUni Potsdam's Implementation of BolognaGreater Pressure for AllMore Demands on TimeChange in the Formality of Student-Professor RelationshipDiscussionProfessors Are Adaptable CreaturesBologna Shifts Humboldtian IdealWithout Further Harmonization, Confusion Will EnsueConclusion
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