Brain Drain and Brain Gain

Accompanied by the international student mobility flows, emigration and immigration depend on structural conditions and prerequisites of the higher education sector and labour market issues. Therefore, there is a public debate and, in a sense, a competition for top students. It is discussed as a significant advantage and considerable benefit to get and keep these students, and as a disadvantage for countries that do not have the means to keep their students.

Armenia and Belgium have no information on Brain Drain, (n?) or on Brain Gain. LSA (LV) reports “brain drain affection due to a high unemployment rate, it is seen that a lot of incoming students leave the country after finishing their degree.” PSRP (PL) perceives similar consequences? Effects, trends?, “it is said that insignificant percentage of incoming students stay in Poland after finishing”. Even for Austria it is hard to make the foreign students stay, due to the insufficient resources and available prospects in work. Therefore, Austria established the RedWhiteRed-Card, a special working permit for qualified employees from Non-EU countries (Federal Ministry of the Interior 2014), though only 213 out of 1700 student applicants from Non-EU countries got it in the year 2013 (Der Standard 2014). Staying in a country is primarily linked to working conditions; however language requisitions are described by ÖH (AT) and LSA (LV) as the main barrier. Following from that, these countries perceive effects and are aware of Brain Drain. The most important Brain Drain movement from Germany is towards North America, by 10,000 students. For this reason, the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) established the German academic international network (GAIN). On the other hand, “25 % of the international students request to stay after their studies in Germany, fzs denotes”.

25 % of the international students request to stay after their studies in Germany, fzs denotes. Otherwise in Denmark, “in 2008, 30 % of incoming students found a job”, DSF explains, and “four out of five students wish to find a job after graduation.” Denmark therefore expanded the work permit period for international students to three years, as opposed to six months before. Though, it has to be considered that a study from 2008 showed that half of the students of Denmark who finished their degree abroad in 2003 stayed abroad afterwards. Similar outcomes are reported by LSVb (NL), where 64 % of the international students wish to stay after the completion of their studies in the Netherlands. EÜL (ES) explains that “educational migration to Estonia has been stable in the recent years, making 12 % out of the whole migration, but it is still about two times lower than the EU average (23 %) and even more for Finland (27 %).” SYL and SAMOK (FI) report that 70 % of the international students are staying at least one year in Finland.

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