The Routledge Handbook Of Adoption

I Adoption in contextHISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY CONTEXTS OF US ADOPTION: An overviewPrior to the 1900s-1960sS-2000s-the presentIssues and areas of controversy in adoptionOpennessTransracial adoptionInternational adoptionLGBTQ adoptionInequality in adoption as a reproductive optionEmerging areas of exploration and practiceReferencesUS ADOPTION BY THE NUMBERSMethodsShifts in adoption patternsDecreasing number of adopted children under 18 since 2000Which states have higher percentages of children under 18 who are adopted?Characteristics of transracially adopted childrenPlace of birth of internationally adopted childrenConclusionAuthor noteReferencesAN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE ON ETHICS IN ADOPTION POLICYThe right number of adoptionsImperfect information aspectPositive externality aspectExisting policy creates too few adoptionsCreating more adoptionsIncreasing adoptions using subsidiesImproving information without reducing adoptions is difficultCreating better adoptionsConclusionReferencesDOMESTIC ADOPTION IN ETHIOPIABackgroundLegal and policy frameworks for domestic adoptionUNCRC and ACRWCThe Ethiopian constitutionThe Revised Family Code proclamation of 2000Alternative child care guidelinesIntercountry adoptionDomestic adoptionIncreased awareness on benefits of family-based care to childrenGovernment-induced interventionsBan on intercountry adoptionFoster-to-adopt: the case of Bethany GlobalSteps in program implementationAwareness raisingPartnerships and capacity buildingChild and family assessmentMatching-to-placementPost-placement servicesKey aspects of Bethany’s role in innovating alternative careDeinstitutionalization of careBuilding infrastructure for a new care optionPartnership with the faith communityCurrent state of domestic adoption in EthiopiaConclusionsNoteReferencesINTERSECTION OF INFORMATION SCIENCE AND CRISIS PREGNANCY DECISION-MAKINGFrameworksMethodsFindingsEnvisioning future possible selves, pre-adoptionEnvisioning future possible selves, post-adoptionTrading of trust and powerDeveloping trust in information providersNegotiating trust with the adoptive parentsImplications for adoption research and practiceConclusionReferencesRESPECTING CHILDREN’S RELATIONSHIPS AND IDENTITIES IN ADOPTIONBirth family relationships and identityRelationshipsIdentityRelationships with foster carers and other previous caregiversBuilding a secure base in the adoptive familyPlanning and supporting adoptions that respect children’s relationships and identities: Connections to policy and practiceReferencesTHE EARLY GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT STUDY: Using an adoption design to understand family influences and child developmentIntroductionBirth parentsFactors that lead to choosing adoptionAdoptive familiesImplications for practice and policyReferencesII Diversity in adoptionUNIQUE CHALLENGES AND STRENGTHS FOR FAMILIES FORMED THROUGH INTERNATIONAL ADOPTIONThe process of bonding and family integrationCommunication about adoptionPsychosocial development and adjustmentEthnic and cultural differencesSearching and reconciliation with originsPractical implications and future lines of researchConclusionsReferencesA CRITICAL ADOPTION STUDIES AND ASIAN AMERICANIST INTEGRATIVE PERSPECTIVE ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF KOREAN ADOPTIONAdoption as natural experiment and interventionAdoption (and race) as a risk factorA critical adoption studies and Asian Americanist integrative approach to adoption studiesThe historical and cultural context of Korean adoptionReview of researchPerceived discriminationEthnic-racial identityERI as a protective factorParental cultural socializationCultural socialization and ethnic-racial identityCultural socialization and psychological outcomesCultural socialization as a protective factorSelf-directed cultural engagementPolicy and practice implicationsDiscussionFuture researchNotesReferencesA NATIONALLY REPRESENTATIVE COMPARISON OF BLACK AND WHITE ADOPTIVE PARENTS OF BLACK ADOPTEESLiterature reviewMultiracial Black adopteesGaps in the literatureMethodsIndependent variablesResultsDiscussionConclusionAuthor noteReferencesRACIAL AND GENDER PREFERENCES AMONG POTENTIAL ADOPTIVE PARENTSThe influence of policy and practiceCountry-specific rulesAgency practiceStructural opportunities and constraintsThe adoption marketplaceAdoption type and child characteristicsCultural social normsSex/gender preferenceRacial preferencesImplications for policy and practiceReferencesADOPTIVE FAMILIES HEADED BY LGBTQ PARENTSDebate about adoption by LGBTQ peopleResearch on families headed by LGBTQ adoptive parentsHow and why LGBTQ people adopt childrenChallenges and strengths of LGBTQ adoptive parentsIndividual outcomes for members of LGBTQ parent familiesImplications for future research, policy, and practiceConclusionNotesReferencesPOST-INSTITUTIONALIZED ADOPTED CHILDREN: Effects of prolonged institutionalization and adoption at an older ageEarly caregiving relationshipsQuality of care in institutionsDevelopment of post-institutionalized adopted childrenResilienceSleeper effectsTiming of institutionalization and sensitive periodsPractice and policy implicationsReferencesADOPTEES WITH DISABILITIES OR MEDICALLY INVOLVED CHILDREN: A multidisciplinary approach for preparing parents, assessing the child, and supporting successful family formationBackgroundAdoption of children with disabilitiesThe second wave: International and special needs adoptionThe third wave: At-risk and medically complex childrenParent preparationThe comprehensive assessment for foster/adopted childrenMedical assessmentDevelopmental assessmentSensory processing assessmentMental health assessment and supportConclusionReferencesADOPTION IN THE CONTEXT OF NATURAL DISASTERTrends in international adoptionAdoption as rescueThe 2010 Haitian earthquakeThe international response to the plight of children after the earthquakeIncreases in international adoption in the year after the earthquakeAdoption from Haiti in the years after the earthquakeReflections on the policy of expediting adoptionsNatural disasters since the Haitian earthquakeConclusion: policy and practice implicationsReferencesIII Lived experienceBIRTH MOTHERS’ OPTIONS COUNSELING AND RELINQUISHMENT EXPERIENCESRelinquishmentBirth parents’ response to the relinquishment processServices and support during the relinquishment processMethodologyRecruitment and proceduresSampleMeasureData analysisResultsSample at the time of relinquishmentConsideration of adoptionInfluences on relinquishment decisionAccess to informationAccess to servicesSources of social supportSources of pressureInformation and timeRelinquishment decisionRelinquishment timeframeReasons for relinquishmentSatisfaction with decisionPost-relinquishment supportHelpfulness of informal and formal supportsLimitationsDiscussionPractice and policy recommendationsAuthors’ noteReferencesTRANSRACIAL ADOPTEES: The rewards and challenges of searching for their birth familiesMotivations to searchSociocultural context of searchingNormative aspects of searchingPsychological aspects of searchingSearching strategiesContact and reunionsImplications for practiceConclusionReferencesCOMMUNICATION ABOUT ADOPTION IN FAMILIESModels and theories of adoption-related family communicationFamily adoption communication model: theorizing changeFamily communication patterns theory: exploring cohesionNarrative theories: Illuminating sensemaking and identityRelational dialectics theory: Competing for meaning-makingDiscourse dependency: Communicating complexities, challenges, and connectionsAdoption decisions, pathways, and experiences: empirical findings(Pre-)adoption decisionsPrimary pathwaysDomestic (private) adoptionFoster adoptionInternational adoptionAdoption reunionsImplications for practice and policyReferencesOPEN ADOPTIONDomestic infant adoptionsFamily dynamicsOutcomes for adoptive kinship network membersDomestic adoptions from the child welfare systemInternational adoptionsConclusionsRecommendations for practice and policyRecommendations for future researchReferencesHOW ADOPTIVE PARENTS THINK ABOUT THEIR ROLE AS PARENTSParent role and Shared Fate TheoryShared Fate Theory as adoptive parenting cognitionsImplications of adoptive parenting cognitionsParental role in ethnic-racial socializationAdoptive parents’ feelings of entitlementImplications for practiceInforming agenciesInforming clinical workReferencesRELIGIOSITY AND ADOPTIONReligion and willingness to adoptReligious identity/affiliationMeasures of religiosityReligion not includedReligious motivations to adopt among adoptive parentsReligious meaning-making in adoptionImplications for policy and practiceReferencesADOPTIVE MICRO AGGRESSIONS: Historical foundations, current research, and practical implicationsThe historical context of adoptionThe stigmatization of adoptionResearch on racial microaggressionsAdoptive microaggressions researchThe intersectionality of multiple identities in the context of adoptive microaggressionsConclusion and practice implicationsNoteReferencesMALTREATMENT OF ADORTEES IN ADOPTIVE HOMESMaltreatment of childrenAdoptive familiesBiological familiesFoster careUnderstanding of maltreatmentEtiology of child maltreatmentFamily- and community-level theoriesStress and anger modelsIndividual-level theoriesConsequences of child maltreatmentPolicy and practice recommendationsHome studiesPre-placement training and educationMatchingPost-placement supportsFinancialConclusionReferencesIV OutcomesSPEECH AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN ADOPTED CHILDRENGenetic and environmental influences on languageNeurobiological effect of poor caregiving on language developmentImplications for policy and practiceNeurobiological effect of changing languagesLanguage outcomes in internationally adopted childrenChildren adopted internationally between 0 and 2 yearsImplications for policy and practiceChildren adopted internationally between 3 and 4 yearsChildren adopted internationally at 5 years and olderImplications for policy and practiceLanguage abilities in school-age internationally adopted childrenImplications for policy and practiceConclusionReferencesBEHAVIORAL AND EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT IN ADOPTEESThe role of attachmentEmotional and behavioral adjustmentMediating mechanisms related to behavioral and emotional adjustmentExecutive functionsEmotion regulationEmotion understandingHow to foster emotional and behavioral adjustmentSummary and implications for policy and practiceReferencesTHE NEUROBIOLOGICAL EMBEDDING OF EARLY SOCIAL DEPRIVATION IN CHILDREN EXPOSED TO INSTITUTIONAL REARINGBrain development in the context of adverse rearingEarly adverse experiences and global brain developmentPrefrontal cortex structure and functioningPrefrontal cortex structure and functioning in adopted youthLimbic circuitry structure and functioningAmygdala structureHippocampus structureLimbic functioningHPA axisHPA axis alterationsCortisol reactivityDiurnal rhythmsAutonomic nervous systemTypical autonomic nervous system functioningANS functioning in adopted youthInterventions that influence neurobiolog)' in adopted youthPolicy and practice implicationsConclusionsReferencesPOST-ADOPTION SHORT-AND LONG-TERM SOCIAL ADAPTATION AND COMPETENCE OF INTERNATIONALLY ADOPTED CHILDRENChild-parent attachmentIndiscriminate social behaviorSocial competence and identity developmentRelationship qualitiesSocial and academic competenceAdoptive identity and ethnic identitySelf-esteemSummary and policy implicationsReferencesACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AND SCHOOL ADJUSTMENT OF INTERNATIONALLY ADOPTED CHILDREN IN NORWAYAcademic achievement of international adopteesFactors mediating relationship between adversity and academic outcomesAcademic performance and school adjustment of international adoptees in NorwayParticipants and procedureMain results from the Norwegian studyConclusion and implications for policy and practiceReferencesPARENTING STRESS IN ADOPTIVE FAMILIESNon-adoptive and adoptive familiesChild characteristics and parenting stressParent(ing) characteristics and parenting stressImplications for intervention with adoptive familiesReferencesADOPTION INSTABILITY, ADOPTION BREAKDOWNPermanence, instability, breakdownConceptual and methodological difficultiesHow many cases of adoption instability or breakdowm?Adoption instabilityAdoption breakdownCauses of adoption instability and breakdownChild characteristicsAdoptive parents and family lifeSupport and servicesPolicy and practice implicationsReferencesV Adoption competencyADOPTION COMPETENT CLINICAL PRACTICEAdoption competence: toward consensusAdoption competent practice definedAdoption competent clinical practice principlesFoundational requirementsComplexity of mental health needsCompetencies in practiceAdoption as a form of family formationLoss, grief, and separationTrauma and brain developmentAttachmentTherapeutic parenting in addressing challenging behaviorsIdentity formationAdoption lensConclusionImplications for policy, practice, and researchReferencesTRAINING FOR ADOPTION COMPETENCY CURRICULUMIntroductionResponding to the need: The Center for Adoption Support and EducationCASE’s clinical treatment approach and servicesDefining adoption competency and developing TACCreating a sub-specialty in adoption clinical practiceThe TAC curriculumTAC participantsEvaluation of TACCase example: Adoption competent mental health practiceChanges in information collected at intakeMethods used to assess child/familyClinical approaches usedExpanding the reach: National Adoption Competency Mental Health Training InitiativeImplications for research, practice, and policyConclusionReferencesAWARENESS OF ADOPTION AT SCHOOLIntroduction and case exampleCulturally responsive teachingAn understanding of loss and separation for educatorsTrauma-informed schoolsCase studyPresenting problemInterventionImplicationsStrategies for educatorsPositive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS)Using adoption-friendly languageThe special education processPre-referral requirementsSpecial education servicesEnglish Language Learners/English as a new languageSchool partnershipsFamily-school connectionIndividualized education plansEvery Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)Barriers to engagementOvercoming barriersImplications for instructionLibrary resourcesFamily-centered projectsPre-service teachersExplicit direct instructionResources and assignmentsAdoption-friendly languageAdoption resources for educators and studentsArticles: Schools and adoptionCulturally responsive teachingEnglish Language Learners/adoption resourcesExplicit direct instructionFamily engagementMental health resourcesFamily partnershipsSpecial educationTrauma-informed schoolsAssignmentsLibrary resources/booksReferencesPOST-ADOPTION SERVICES: Needs and adoption typeTypes of post-adoption sendeesService needs as a function of adoption typeDomestic private adoptionsInternational/intercountry adoptionsAdoptions from child welfareService use as a function of child and family characteristicsFamily dynamicsPost-adoption services for youth with special needsOther considerations for post-adoption accessDifficulty accessing post-adoption servicesPractice implicationsPolicy implicationsConclusionReferencesADOPTION-SPECIFIC CURRICULA IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAdoption-specific curricula in degree programsPost-degree adoption training programsAdoption curricula studyMethodResultsPhase one: course syllabiPhase two: online surveyPhase one: course syllabi updatesDiscussionEducational implicationsPractice and policy implicationsStudy limitationsFuture directions and recommendationsNoteReferences
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