The Routledge Handbook of Waste, Resources and the Circular Economy

BackgroundThe circular economySituating circular economy principles in the field of waste and resource managementChallenges associated with the concept of a circular economyThe structure of the HandbookConclusionsReferencesI The need for and challenges surrounding circularityNatural resources. Consumption, pollution, and health risks: developed versus developing economiesIntroductionThe use of natural resourcesNatural resources: distribution and consumption around the worldEnvironmental issues due to the exploitation of natural resources: the status in developed and developing economiesEnvironmental and health issues due to the exploitation of natural resources: case studiesConclusionsReferencesConsumption and materialism: from acquisitive to responsible materialismIntroductionThe role of consumers in the circular economyConsumer acceptance of circular products: barriers and opportunitiesBarriersOpportunitiesSome practical casesConclusionsReferencesFurther readingEmbedding more circular approaches to the management of resourcesIntroductionChallenges facedKey resourcesAdopting a more circular approach to resource managementReferencesEnvironmental justice, waste management, and the circular economy: global perspectivesIntroductionExporting environmental injusticesWaste, pollution, and socioeconomic developmentFacilitating a more circular approach and reducing environmental injusticesReferencesResource consumption and the associated health risks: a brief overviewIntroductionRisks posedReducing the risksConclusionsReferencesThe Sustainable Development Goals as drivers for changeEvolution of drivers for waste and resource managementImproved waste and resource management as an entry point for achieving multiple Sustainable Development GoalsLinking waste and resource management to the Sustainable Development GoalsDirect entry points to the Sustainable Development GoalsLinkages to global environmental crisesClimate changeMarine plasticsIndirect linkages to all the remaining Sustainable Development GoalsIndicators for the Sustainable Development GoalsConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesTriggers for industrial symbiosis: lessons learnt from twenty-five case studiesIntroductionStrategyTriggersNational levelRegional/local, including city levelFirm levelConclusionsReferencesBought today, gone tomorrow? from linear to circular consumptionIntroductionObsolescence as a social constructThe communication of obsolescence - insights into media discoursesPerceptions and experiences of obsolescence - results of consumer researchFactors influencing life span from a holistic perspectiveNotesReferencesII Measuring and implementing circularityAfrica – juxtaposition between rapid urbanisation, industrialisation, and the need to preserve traditional circular systemsThe circular economy in the African contextAfrica’s circular economy policy landscapeAgenda 2063 and the Durban Declaration: frameworks for a continental transition to circular economyCountry-level circular economy policies and legislationPrivate-sector small and medium-sized organisations and non-profits drive the circular economy in AfricaRapid urbanisation is eroding circular economy practices in AfricaCritical enablers for an African circular economy transitionA circular economy vision supported by political willEnabling regulatory frameworks at the country, provincial, and city levels is neededCooperation at the global level to support system enablersCapacity building to increase awareness of circular economies and create the skills needed for circular economies in AfricaEnhanced research, development, and innovation based on the African contextFinancial support to ensure that circularity remains at the heart of African economiesAn enhanced people-centric approach to circular economy developmentConclusionsNotesReferencesConceptualising circular start-upsIntroductionDefinitions of sustainable and circular business modelsTheoretical frameworkDiscussion and ConclusionNotesReferencesEcodesign and circular design of products: concepts, assessment, and strategiesIntroductionAdvantages of ecodesign and circular designStandardisation related to ecodesign and circular designLegislation related to ecodesign and circular designProcedure for designing a productTools for assessing the circular/environmental impacts of a productEnvironmental assessment toolsMaterials use, energy use, and toxic materials matrixLifecycle assessmentCircular assessment toolsDesign strategiesEnvironmental strategiesNew concept developmentSelection of low-impact materialsReduction of material useOptimisation of production techniquesOptimisation of distribution systemReduction of impact during useOptimisation of lifetimeOptimisation of end-of-life systemCircularity strategiesLong-lastingLoop-lastingBioinspired/biobasedConclusionsReferencesApproaches to monitoring and evaluation of resource recovery from waste towards a circular economyIntroductionMonitoring and evaluation: importance and definitionsMonitoring and evaluation approaches in achieving a circular economyMacro-, meso-, and micro-level metrics used for monitoring and evaluation of achieving the circular economyDiscussionConclusionsReferencesComplexity and the circular economy: systems approaches for changeIntroductionComplexity, systems thinking, and managing transitions to the circular economyComplexity and complex systemsThe circular economy as a complex systemThe implications of complexity for managing transitions to the circular economyTools and approaches for managing change to the circular economyTop-down and bottom-up processes for changeHigh-level, goal-oriented governance approachesPolicy tools and approachesTools and approaches for evaluation and participationConclusionsReferencesCircular economy meso-level planning: an approach with ‘distributed economies’IntroductionGrounds for expecting support from distributed economies to circular economyTheoretical foundations for the analyses of the distributed economies modelFundamentals of economic analysis of sustainability: the neoclassical paradigmSome limits and pitfalls of the neoclassical paradigm applied to sustainability analysisFundamentals of economic analysis of sustainability: the institutional/ecological paradigmParadigmatic alignment of the distributed economies model with ecological economics’ support of the circular economyConclusionReferencesFurther readingIII Policy and legislative considerationsThe role of policy in creating a more circular economyIntroductionThe policy processWhat is policy?Why is public policy ever needed?should policymakers be interested in creating a circular economy?How can policy drive a circular economy?The policy optionsLiterature reviewCase studiesRegulatory framework - packaging extended producer responsibility (United Kingdom)Business support scheme - the REBus project (European Union)Collaboration platforms - the Plastics Pacts (United Kingdom and global)Public procurement and infrastructure - Chinese circular economy demonstrator projectsChallengesSwimming against the tideLegislating is hardWhere’s the evidence?Making the perfect the enemy of the goodThe risk of unintended consequencesWhat do we want?Future opportunitiesConclusionReferencesFurther readingLegal considerations for a circular economyIntroductionSelected legal issuesMeaning and enforcement of circular economyCircular economy literature: whither law?Procurement and ownershipOvercoming contradictions?Suggested future directionsConclusionReferencesFurther readingEconomic and trade considerations of circular economy approachesIntroductionCircularity and international tradeThe challenges facing international trade and circularityGrowth and circularityInternational trade and growth: trends and anomaliesComprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement: the future of a United Kingdom-Canada circular economyConclusionReferencesManaging waste at the national and local levelsManaging solid waste at the national and local levelStakeholders and their roles in solid waste governanceThe green versus the brown agendaPrivate, public, or merit good?Defining a glocalised strategy for solid waste management?National-level guidance on local waste managementBiowaste management as a priorityImplementation at the local levelReferencesIV Sharing economies and capacity buildingMaking sustainable markets and the forming of a circular economyMarkets and the work of concerning market actors in order to bring about changeMaking up sustainable markets as moral marketsFrom sustainable markets to circular economiesReferencesBecoming eco-literate through experiential encounters with foodIntroductionLearning for living: a failure of environmental education?The pedagogic landscape of eco-literacy: what does it mean to be ‘eco-literate’?The pedagogic landscape of food: a role for experiential learning as ecological literacy?A critical political pedagogy as eco-literacy for foodThe sensing body as a site for learning food eco-literacyConclusionsNotesReferencesImplementing low-carbon strategies – analysis of barriersSpurring investment in low-carbon technologyBarriers for investment in energy efficiencyPayback timeVolatility of energy pricesCompetition for capitalFailure to recognise non-monetary benefitsLack of strategic relevanceBasic enterprise strategies and relation to energy efficiency investmentIncubationGrowthMaturityDeclineExperiences in implementing low-carbon strategiesResults of energy audits in 280 enterprisesResults related to life-cycle phase of the companiesConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesOvercoming financial, social, and environmental challenges faced by cooperatives: case studies from the state of Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilIntroductionTypes of cooperativesMethodsStudy contextThe research approach and data collectionResultsGeneral findingsKey findings from each intervieweeDiscussionConclusionsReferencesThe informal recycling sector – environmental criminals or the future of the circular economy?IntroductionWhat is informal recycling?Who are informal recyclers?The scale and impact of informal recyclingKey challenges faced by informal recyclersAn inclusive urban resource economy?The circular economy and global developmentInformal workers in the contemporary economy: fourth industrial revolutionConclusionsNotesReferencesRefugee camps and circular economy in Palestinian West Bank: challenges and opportunitiesCircular economy and principles of integrated sustainable waste managementSolid waste management in the Occupied Palestinian Territory and West Bank refugee campsSelected experiences in solid waste recoveryCardboard collection and reuseOrganic waste managementPlastic recoveryRefugee engagement, a crucial componentElements for future opportunitiesConclusionAcknowledgementsReferencesV RecyclingExploring household dynamics for recycling in the United Kingdom: a case study of recycling habits in greater LondonIntroductionHousehold waste recyclingHousehold waste management research: psychology and practiceMaterials and methodsInvestigating the ‘green casuals’MethodsResultsHousehold dynamics, ‘decision-making,’ and contested spaces of recycling practicesWaste systems, technologies, and informationUn-packing the packagingWaste trajectoriesDiscussion and conclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesCircular start-ups: five business model archetypes as frontrunners of circular disruptionIntroductionMethodsRegional and organisational scopeData analysisResults and discussionSector and market overviewCircular business model strategies and innovationsTowards a typology of circular start-upsDesign-based start-upsWaste-based start-upsPlatform-based start-upsService-based start-upsNature-based start-upsConclusionsNotesReferencesEnablers and barriers for industrial symbiosis: lessons learnt from twenty-five case studiesIntroductionEnablersThe role ofgovernment/regional authoritiesIntermediaries/knowledge agentsSocial/relationshipsLeadershipGeographical/spatialProcessTechnologyBarriersMaterialsCapacity and capabilityComplexity and continuityCommunication and coordinationLeadership and mindsetGeographical/spatialTechnologyEconomic and environmentalPolicy/regulation (firm/network level) and contractsPolicy, regulation, and investment at a government/regional/local/city authority levelConclusionsReferenceA proposed approach for a solid waste collection system in an African rural town: a case study from KenyaIntroductionWaste collection and management in developing countriesThe case study areaMethodsEvaluating waste generation patternsUnderstanding the views of the communityDeveloping the collection systemResultsWaste production and compositionThe views of the communityDesign of a system for waste collection and disposalDiscussionConclusionsAcknowledgementsReferencesCircular economy opportunities in Africa – emerging sectors and missing narrativesCircular economy development in AfricaPlasticsThe case of South Africa: leveraging extended producer responsibility activities and introducing a Plastic PactThe case of Ghana: leveraging global action to develop a local policy frameworkThe case of Rwanda: utilising regulation for behaviour and market changeAgricultureResearch, development, and innovation in AgTech based on the local contextElectronicsThe case of Nigeria: developing a circular economy for electronics policy frameworkThe case of South Africa: the need for a roadmapThe missing narratives in Africa’s circular economyLeveraging the role of the informal waste management sectorThe case of Accra, Ghana: an informal waste management systemPacka-Ching and WeCyclers: technology and incentives to access recyclables in informal settlementsThe role of design in circular economy transitionsCircular economy opportunities in building systemsCircular economy opportunities in water systemsQuestions that remain unansweredReferencesVI ReuseModular smartphones and circular design strategies: the shape of things to come?Modular smartphones and circular design strategiesA brief history of the sociotechnical developments of mobile phonesThe evolution of a new technology (1861-1990)Commercialisation, segmentation, and product differentiation (1991-2007)Dominance of the multipurpose smartphone (2007-2019)Investigating the convergence and deconvergence of mobile phonesLiving with a smartphone in everyday life: possibilities for modular smartphonesThe frugal userThe overburdened userThe seeking-optimisation userPeople living with smartphones in everyday life and reflections on modular smartphonesDiscussion and conclusionsNoteReferencesThe use of by-products in new materialsIntroductionSustainable Development Goals and the use of by-productsRegisters of by-productsBy-products in constructionReinforced concreteBy-products in reinforced concreteFibre-reinforced concreteBy-products in fibre-reinforced concreteSuperplasticisersBy-products as superplasticisersBy-products as cement and aggregatesDesigning by-products in ‘green’ cementsConclusionReferencesUsing circular supply chains to create community biogasIntroductionEcosystems approach to creating community biogasThe Suderbyn project: a case studyCommunity biogas and the circular supply chain systemUsing industrial symbiosis to trigger community biogas initiatives in Germany and United KingdomGermanyUnited KingdomConclusionReferencesCircular economy initiatives in India: a case study approachIntroductionKey challenges facedAdopting a circular economyCircular economy case studiesTowards a circular economyConclusionsReferencesProduct-service system business models and circular economyIntroductionBusiness model innovation for circular economyCircular economyCircular business modelProduct-service systems for the circular economyProduct-service systemsProduct-service systems and circularityCase StudyFrom selling gas generators to gasesCo-existence of product-service systems business modelsProduct-oriented product-service system: selling products and providing technical servicesUse-oriented product-service system: leasing products and providing technical servicesResult-oriented product-service system: selling industrial gasesFrom linear to circular: how product-service systems affect the circularity in the supply chainTraditional product-based modelProduct-oriented product-service systemUse-oriented product-service systemResult-oriented product-service systemCircularity as a source of value creation of product-service systemsDiscussion and conclusionsReferencesCircular business models in selected geographical contexts: an analysis of two casesIntroductionTheoretical background: enabling factors of circular business modelsEvaluating the casesCase studiesThe Netherlands: the Bundles caseItaly: the Astelav caseDiscussion and conclusionsReferencesImplementing low-carbon strategies in small and medium-sized enterprises: auditing strategiesIntroduction to energy efficiency and low-carbon energy supplyBackgroundThe potential for energy efficiency in small and medium-sized enterprisesLow-carbon strategiesImplementation strategyExperiences in implementing low-carbon strategiesEnergy audits in 280 enterprisesResults of the energy auditsFeedback from the auditsConclusionsAcknowledgementsNoteReferencesCircular economy principles in Africa: the case of off-grid solar in KenyaIntroductionThe role of off-grid solar products and the societal benefitsKey drivers for adoption and market penetrationOpportunities enabled by business models in off-grid solar sectorProactive activities of industry and challenges at end of lifePolicy versus voluntary approachesConclusions and way forwardNotesReferencesCircular supply chain: emerging opportunities and challengesIntroductionLinear supply chainCircular supply chainsOpportunities of the circular supply chainChallenges of circular supply chainConclusionsReferencesIntroductionKey messages going forwardReferences
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