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Reflections on the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident

Integrating Social-Scientific Literacy in Nuclear Engineering Education Approaches Developed in the GoNERI ProgramPreambleGoNERIPAGESPAGES 2009 and 2010 Summer SchoolsConcept, Aim, and Design of PAGES 2011 Summer SchoolPlanning for PAGES 2011 Summer SchoolAim and Design of PAGES 2011 ProgramSpecific Arrangements for Educational EffectivenessResults and EvaluationPoints Discussed During the ProgramEvaluation of PAGES 2011Concluding RemarksI Understanding the Fukushima Daiichi Accident and Its ConsequencesEvent Sequence of the Fukushima Daiichi AccidentOverview of the AccidentUnprecedented Mega-EarthquakeTsunamiAccident Progression for Units 1–3Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Present Situation of Cores and PCVs of Units 1–3Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3Spent Fuel Pool CoolingPlant ExplosionUnits 1 and 3Unit 4Concluding RemarksAnalysis of Radioactive Release from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power StationIntroductionMethods of AnalysisGeneral Concepts for Various ModelsModel 1: Release from Fuel with Known/Assumed InventoryModel 2: Codes for Severe Accident Progression AnalysisModel 3: Atmospheric Transport ModelModel 4: Ambient Dose Rate from the Contaminated GroundOccurrence of the Accident and Release, Transport, and Washout of the Radiation PlumeEvaluationsApproach Based on Radionuclide Release Analysis: Model 1Approach Based on Radiation MonitorComparison Between ApproachesContamination and Environmental CleanupSummary and ConclusionEnvironmental Contamination and Decontamination After Fukushima Daiichi AccidentPrologueEnvironmental ContaminationSurface Radioactivity ConcentrationsRadiation Doses Due to ContaminationRegulatory GuidelinesModeling of Decontamination to Help Decision MakingPurpose of ModelingMechanisms Considered in the ModelResultsWaste Generation by DecontaminationModel and DataResultsConcluding Remarks: Conflicting Values and MotivesAppendix: Mathematical FormulationsLong-Term Energy and Environmental StrategiesIntroductionRegionally Disaggregated DNE21Nuclear and Photovoltaic (PV) ModelingModel SimulationSimulation Assumptions and SettingsCalculated ResultsEnergy Modeling Challenge After FukushimaConclusionImpact of Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Japan's Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Spent Fuel ManagementStatus QuoHow Has This Status Quo Been Generated?What Are the Problems with the Current Situation?Political Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident in EuropeEarlier AccidentsThe Three Mile Island AccidentThe Chernobyl AccidentThe Fukushima Accident and Radiological ImpactThe AccidentThe Size of the Radiological Impact Outside JapanTechnical Assessments and Stress Tests in EuropeIAEA ReportsThe European UnionPolitical Impact in Europe from FukushimaInfluence of Green Politics in EuropeII EtiologyWhere Was the Weakness in Application of Defense-in-Depth Concept and Why?IntroductionWeakness in the Application of Defense-in-Depth ConceptLevel 1Level 4Level 5Nuclear Safety RegulationTwo-Agency SystemHardware FocusFrequent ShufflingDifferences in Plant Responses Among 17 Nuclear Power PlantsCultural Attitude IssuesGeneral ObservationRelated StudiesLink with National CultureFuture DirectionsConclusionsEthics, Risk and Safety Culture Reflections on Fukushima and BeyondPreambleIntroductionPreliminariesHistorical Perspective on Culture and TechnologySafety Culture, Ethics and RiskUncertainty and Safety PhilosophyReflections on Fukushima DaiichiWhere Do We Go from Here?Appendix A: The Conventional Approach to Risk AssessmentAppendix B: Defense in DepthAppendix C: The Accident Sequence at Fukushima DaiichiThe “Structural Disaster” of the Science-Technology-Society Interface From a Comparative Perspective with a Prewar AccidentIntroductionThe “Structural Disaster” of the Science-TechnologySociety InterfaceThe Basic Points About the Fukushima Daiichi Accident from the Perspective of “Structural Disaster”The Development Trajectory of the Kanpon Type and Its PitfallsThe Accident Kept SecretThe Hidden Accident and the Outbreak of War with the U.S. and Britain: How Did Japan Deal with the Problem?The Sociological Implications for the Fukushima Daiichi Accident: Beyond Success or FailureConclusion: Prospects for the FutureThree Mile Island and Fukushima Some Reflections on the History of Nuclear PowerIII Basis for Moving ForwardImplications and Lessons for Advanced Reactor Design and OperationShort Reflection of Basic Safety IssuesLessons Learned and Recommendations DerivedNatural HazardsEmergency Power SupplyLoss of Heat SinkHydrogen DetonationMeasurement at Severe AccidentsManagement of Severe AccidentRecommendations and Requirements Derived from Lessons LearnedExamples for Potential Countermeasures and/or Technologies to be AppliedExternal EventsDesign of Buildings, Systems and ComponentsMitigation Measures Against Severe AccidentsSummaryUnderstanding the Health Impacts and Risks of Exposure to RadiationIntroductionFundamental ConceptsDefining and Measuring Ionizing RadiationA Perspective on Natural Versus Man-Made RadiationDistinguishing External from Internal ExposureCategorizing the Health Effects of RadiationDirect Versus Indirect EffectsAcute Versus Chronic EffectsDeterministic Versus Stochastic EffectsHomogeneous Versus Heterogeneous IrradiationCorrelating Radiation Exposure with Health EffectsLow Dose Ionizing RadiationLinear-No-Threshold ModelChronic Exposure to Low Dose RadiationMinimizing and Treating Exposure to RadiationThe Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentEstimating the Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Subsequent ImpactRadionuclides Released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power PlantHealth Effects and ConsequencesConclusionsAppendix A: Glossary of Useful TermsAppendix B: Suggested Literature for In-Depth Reading of Topics Discussed in This ChapterNuclear Safety Regulation in Japan and Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi AccidentIntroductionHistorical Progress of Nuclear Safety Regulation in JapanThe First Period (1957–1978)The Second Period (1978–1999)The Third Period (Since 1999)Two Regulatory “Failures”—Systemic Causes of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident“Failure” of Interdisciplinary Communication“Failure” of Voluntary Safety EffortsRequirements for New Regulatory SystemStrengthening IndependenceEnsuring Integrative CapabilitiesFuture ChallengesReferencesRadioactive Waste Management After Fukushima Daiichi AccidentIntroductionLegislation for Radioactive Waste Management after Fukushima Daiichi AccidentManagement of Contaminated WaterManagement of Radioactive Wastes Generated Within Nuclear Power StationManagement of Nuclear Fuels in Nuclear Reactors and Spent Fuel PoolConcept of Radioactive Waste DisposalSummaryFrom Fukushima to the World How to Learn from the Experience in JapanIV Reflections by Students and MentorsStudents' ReflectionsFormat for Students' Discussion at the Summer SchoolStudents' EssaysThoughts on Emergency Workers' Dose Limit, by Toshiyuki Aratani, the University of TokyoThe Role of Engineers in Democratic Societies, by Christian Di Sanzo, University of California, BerkeleyGreater Public Good and Rationality,by Denia Djokic, University of California, BerkeleyRole of Nuclear Professionals After Fukushima, by Kenta Horio, the University of TokyoRisk Analysis and Public Confidence, by Naomi Kaida, the University of TokyoBenefits Versus Risk,by Keisuke Kawahara, the University of TokyoWas Mr. Yoshida Ethical? by Lukis MacKie, University of Tennessee, KnoxvilleSafety Culture and the Accident, by Hiroshi Madokoro, the University of TokyoInformation Sharing at the Accident, by Haruyuki Ogino, the University of TokyoRisk Perception and Communication, by Petrus, Tokai UniversityRadiation Risk Communication, by Kazumasa Shimada, the University of TokyoBenefits Versus Risks, by Kampanart Silva, the University of TokyoBenefits of Nuclear Power, by Christina Novila Soewono, Tokai UniversityWho Am I? What Is My Own Role on Earth? by Shin-etsu Sugawara, the University of TokyoThe Role of Nuclear Engineers in Society,by Tatsuhiko Sugiyama, the University of TokyoThe Role of Nuclear Engineers in Society, by Eva Uribe, University of California, BerkeleyEducating the Post-Fukushima Nuclear EngineerIntroductionA Brief History of Nuclear Engineering EducationPost-Fukushima Questions and AnswersBuilding Sustainable Interdisciplinary BridgesConclusionReflections on Developing an Identity for the Third Generation Nuclear Engineer in the Post-Fukushima SocietyPrefaceImplications of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident to Nuclear EngineeringGoals for This ChapterMotivation for This ChapterWhat Is a Professional?A Particular Challenge to Engineering as a ProfessionRegarding Public Communication as a Form of ProfessionalismBeginning to Understand Professional Ethics as a ResponsibilityFinal Remarks Regarding Nuclear Engineering as a ProfessionNuclear Engineers for Society: What Education can doIntroductionNuclear Education Reform Before the Fukushima Daiichi AccidentCommunication on Science and TechnologyAttempts in Nuclear Engineering CommunityUnfruitful Results from the AttemptsIs Communication Essential for Advancing Nuclear Engineering?LegitimacyIntrospectionTrustEffective CommunicationCommunication with Society and the General PublicCommunication with Experts in Other FieldsReform of EducationStandardization and InternationalizationTransparency and SharingSocial-Scientific Literacy EducationFaculty Development and EvaluationConcluding RemarksV Education in FutureEngineers, Social Scientists, and Nuclear Power A Narrative from WithinIntroductionPaths into the ProjectSearching for FitVoice, Tone, Trust, and PowerAfter the AccidentDiscussing the Fukushima Daiichi CatastropheClosing ObservationsTowards More Open-Minded Nuclear Engineering Diversity, Independence and Public GoodIntroductionDenial of Nuclear Power: A Message from Japanese CourtResponses from Nuclear Engineers in JapanDon't Refuse, but Inspired by the Voice from SocietyDemocratization of Nuclear Engineering: Not Just for Political Correctness, but Also for Innovation of TechnologyConcluding Remarks: Independence and Diversity of Nuclear Engineering for Unprecedented ChallengeLunchbox-Toolbox: GKS1350021 and Nuclear EngineersA Request: From GKS1350021 to Nuclear EngineersInvisibility Versus Transparency: The Ex-SKF BlogLunchbox-Toolbox: Meeting Joonhong AhnRemediation and GKS1350021: Teaching Contamination as a Literary CriticScientist Citizen: Cecile Pineda's Devil's Tango: How I Learned the Fukushima Step by StepCitizen Scientist: From Nuclear Engineers to GKS1350021Resilience Engineering A New Horizon of Systems SafetyIntroductionShift in the Focal Point of Systems SafetyEra of TechnologyEra of Human ErrorEra of Socio-Technical InteractionsEra of ResilienceProgress in Human Reliability AnalysisFirst-Generation HRASecond-Generation HRACognitive Model of Team PerformanceSafety Culture and High Reliability OrganizationWhat Is Resilience?Definition of ResilienceEssential Characteristics of ResilienceSocial Aspect of ResilienceKey Issues in Resilience EngineeringImplementation Process of ResilienceAssessment of ResilienceInterdependencies Between SystemsDecision SupportResilience in Ordinary SituationsSocial InstallationConclusion
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