Opening Science

I Basics/BackgroundTowards Another Scientific RevolutionKnowledge Creation and Dissemination: A Brief HistoryProfessionalization of Knowledge Creation: The First Scientific RevolutionLegacy Gap: The Background of the Second Scientific RevolutionThe Second Scientific RevolutionNaming the New: Science 2.0, Open Science, eScience, Mode2, Open ResearchThe Second Scientific Revolution: Road to a Great New Future?The Second Scientific Revolution is Based on Many Novel Aspects and ToolsHow This Book Works: Artificially Dissecting the Second Scientific RevolutionOpen Science: One Term, Five Schools of ThoughtPublic School: The Obligation to Make Science Accessible to the PublicAccessibility to the Research Process: Can Anyone be a Scientist?Comprehensibility of the Research Result: Making Science UnderstandableDemocratic School: Making Research Products AvailableOpen DataOpen Access to Research PublicationPragmatic School: Making Research More EfficientInfrastructure School: Architecture Matters MostDistributed ComputingSocial and Collaboration NetworksMeasurement School: Finding Alternative Measurements for Scientific OutputDiscussionExcellence by Nonsense: The Competition for Publications in Modern ScienceIn Search of ExcellenceThe Competition for Publications in Academic Journals: The Peer-Review ProcessThe Competition for Top-Rankings by Maximising Publications and CitationsSide Effects of the Production of Nonsense in Science: 'Crowding-Out' Effects and New BureaucracyCrowding-Out EffectsThe Emergence of a New Research BureaucracyScience Caught Flat-Footed: How Academia Struggles with Open Science CommunicationCommunication about ScienceCommunication by Scientists and the Institutionalised PROutlookOpen Science and the Three Cultures: Expanding Open Science to all Domains of Knowledge CreationII Tools(Micro)Blogging Science? Notes on Potentials and Constraints of New Forms of Scholarly CommunicationFraming the Issue: New Forms of Scholarly Communication and Science 2.0Science Blogging as a New Form of Engaging with ScienceCase 1: Rosie Redfield (RRResearch)Case 2: Bora Zivkovic (A Blog Around the Clock)The Uses of Microblogs for Science: Two ScenariosCase 1: Twitter at ConferencesCase 2: Twitter for CitationsWho Uses Blogs and Microblogs for Scholarly Communication, and Why?ConclusionAcademia Goes Facebook? The Potential of Social Network Sites in the Scholarly RealmIntroductionAn Overview of Functions, Potential, and Usage PracticesTypical Functions of SNSPotentials of SNS for Science and ResearchAcademic Usage Practices in SNSThe Diffusion of SNS in Academia and the Intensity of UsageAcademic Usage Practices in Science-Specific SNSAssessing the Potential Future and Impacts of SNS in AcademiaThe Hard Way to the Critical MassThe Hyper-Critical Mass: Too Big to Fail?Multiple Channels, Information Overload and FilteringSocial IssuesConclusionsReference ManagementIntroductionWhat is a Reference Manager?Getting References into the Reference ManagerBibliographic DatabasesCOinS: Hassle-Free Import of Bibliographic DataDigital Object Identifiers and Other Unique IdentifiersStandardized Bibliographic Data Formats: BibTeX and RISCitation Styles and Citation Style LanguageManaging Full-Text ContentReference Management ToolsEndNoteMendeleyZoteroRefWorksPapersJabRefCiteULikeOther Reference Management ProductsOutlookOpen Access: A State of the ArtIntroductionDefinition of Open AccessState of the ArtA Closer Look at Green and Gold Open AccessGreen or Gold: Which is the Better Way?New ModelsBooks and Grey LiteratureImpact of Open Access on PublishingBenefitsNovel Scholarly Journal ConceptsIntroductionNovelty in the Business ModelNovelty in the Editorial ModelNovelty in the Peer Review ModelThe Disaggregation of the Journal ModelConclusionThe Public Knowledge Project: Open Source Tools for Open Access to Scholarly CommunicationIntroductionHistory of the ProjectThe PKP SystemsThe PKP Program(a) Enhancing Interoperability(b) Enhancing Accessibility(c) Enhancing Openness(d) Enhancing KnowledgeConclusionIII VisionAltmetrics and Other Novel Measures for Scientific ImpactIntroductionTerminologyHistoryScholarly ResearchUse CasesMetrics as a Discovery ToolData-Driven Stories About The Post-Publication Reception of ResearchBusiness Intelligence for a Journal, University or FunderAltmetrics as an Evaluation ToolExample Metrics and ProvidersMendeleyCiteULikeTwitterFacebookWikipediaScience BlogsAltmetrics Service ProvidersChallenges and CriticismDynamic Publication Formats and Collaborative AuthoringIntroductionHistoric Dynamic Publishing Using Printed Journals and Books: Revising Editions or Publishing Novel Books and ArticlesPreprint, Postprint and (Open) Peer ReviewFollow-Ups and RetractionsCurrent Aspects of the Publication System in Regard to the Dynamic Knowledge Creation ProcessThe Production Process is not Visible to the ReaderThe Contribution of Individual Authors is not VisibleFinalized Versions do not Allow Changes, Thus Making Corrections and Additions Nearly ImpossibleRedundancy in Scientific Publications—Currently no Reuse and RemixingLegal Hurdles to Make Remixing and Reuse DifficultTechnical Hurdles in Reusing Content—''Publisher PDF'' Files are Mimicking PrintDynamic Publication Format—General ConceptDynamic Publication—ChallengesAspects of Dynamic Publication FormatsDynamicAuthorshipOpennessTranclusion, Pull-Requests, and Forking—Lifecycle and HistoryPublication FormatsContent and Quality ControlCultural BackgroundCurrent Implementation of Dynamic PublicationsJournal Articles and BooksBlogsWikisStack Exchange—Message Boards Where Threads are Initiated by Posting Open QuestionsSNS for ScientistsOpen Research Data: From Vision to PracticeThe Vision of Open Research DataThe Status of Data Sharing TodayUnderstanding the BarriersOvercoming the BarriersTranslating Vision into PracticeIntellectual Property and Computational ScienceIntroductionResearch Dissemination: The NarrativeResearch Dissemination: Data and ''Raw Facts''Research Dissemination: Methods/Code/ToolsConclusionResearch Funding in Open ScienceResearch Funding Policies: Pushing forward Open ScienceResearch Funding at Present: Limitations and Closed DiscoursesOpen Research FundingOpen Research Funding: Some ConsiderationsCrowdfundingSocial Payments in ScienceVirtual Currencies in ScienceSome Critical ReflectionsQuality Assurance and SustainabilityPlagiarismPop Science, Self-Marketing, and VerifiabilityWhat About Openness?Appendix: A List of Crowdfunding Platforms for Scientific ProjectsOpen Innovation and Crowdsourcing in the SciencesWhat is Open Innovation and What is Crowdsourcing?How Scientists Employ CrowdsourcingPerspective 1: Contributing to a Crowdsourcing Process (Open Science)Perspective 2: Obtaining Support for One's Own Science (Citizen Science)Innocentive ( of Challenges and CompetitionsRegistration, Profile and CVInnoget ( ( Billion Minds ( ( ( ( Landscape of Today's Platforms: SummaryRisks in Crowdsourcing ScienceOutlook: What the Future Might BringThe Social Factor of Open ScienceIntroductionThe Transition from Science to Open ScienceThe Importance of Network Science for Research RelevanceAspects of the Social Web in Open ScienceThe Basic Principles of Search Engines: Relevance and ReputationIdentification of the ProtagonistsAscertaining a Quality Factor from Likes, Dislikes, Assessments and CommentsCrowd EditingSuggestion Systems for Articles During the Writing ProcessExample of Academic WritingParallels to Search EnginesSimilar Problems to Those of Search EnginesSimilar Solutions to Those of Search EnginesIV Cases, Recipes and How-TosCreative Commons LicencesOrganizing Collaboration on Scientific Publications: From Email Lists to Cloud ServicesUnique Identifiers for ResearchersThe ProblemUnique Identifiers as a SolutionORCID RegistryOutlookChallenges of Open Data in Medical ResearchIntroductionImportance of Data Exchange and ConsolidationRole of the Patient and its DataRole of Open Research DataChallengesPooling the DataAnonymization, Pseudonymization and ReidentificationOn the Sociology of Science 2.0How This Book was Created Using Collaborative Authoring and Cloud ToolsHow this Book was CreatedHistory II.OIntroduction: Issues and Opportunities of Open History and 2.0History 2.0: Developments, Directions and ConclusionsTypes of Collaboration in Research Crowd Sourcing ProjectsConceptual Questions and ChallengesConclusionsMaking Data Citeable: DataCiteAbout the Authors
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