History, Trauma and Shame: Engaging the Past through Second Generation Dialogue

The backdrop of multidirectional memoriesForgiveness, empathic repair in dialogue encountersOutline of the bookNotesReferencesI Empathic repair in the aftermath of mass violence and trauma: Is it possible to repair the past?Intergenerational transmission of traumaDialogue and the afterlives of victims, perpetratorsGiving testimony, victims reclaiming agencyTowards repair of the pastConclusionNotesReferencesThe power of fear and shame: From hiding place to public spaceFamily history backgroundMultilayered trauma and the legacy of shameAcknowledgement as prerequisite for transformationBreaking the family tabooFrom mourning to integrationPathways to inner freedomAcknowledgementsNotesReferencesBeyond inherited guilt: Reclaiming the selfBiographical backgroundThe difficult approach to my perpetrator parentsProcesses in PAKHLost in the thicket of destructive introjectsThe guilt trap—projective identificationMoving from guilt (feelings) to shameSeparating the self from internalised malignant images of the parentsStruggling for integration and empathyEpilogueNotesReferencesMoving from broken human bonds to compassionate dialogue: Transgenerational restoration of interpersonal solidarity Ruined by the HolocaustThe legacy of the HolocaustBiographical backgroundThe Holocaust experience of my parents: the ghost in my soulPAKH—Platform for difficult dialogueThe ghosts of the pastStirring up ghosts—encounter with the daughter of a perpetratorThe ghost of destruction: the struggle for LebensraumThe ghost of the evil Nazi—can he be loved as a “good father”?The ghost of victimisation—guilt remains guilt. Basta!The process of transformation: driving out ghosts or striving for reconciliation?The path to compassionate dialogue: “turning points”The power of restoration—love and humanenessNotesReferencesFrom broken identities to repair: A German-Jewish dialoguePreamble—the legacy of broken German identityAct One: Rifts in the family—family backgroundAct Two: Remembering, understanding, acknowledging—the path to PAKHAct Three: Broken identities or “the failure of dialogue”Act Four: Successful dialogues in the German-Jewish and Jewish-Jewish confrontation in PAKHAct Five: The effect of broken identity on German-German dialogueEpilogueNotesReferencesGroup phenomena in working through the pastAutobiographical notesPsychoanalytic group theoriesThe role of the group in the transformation processMeeting survivors as a GermanAly encounter with AlexAlex and RobertAlex and the groupApproaching the “death zone”: dialogue between descendants of survivors and perpetrators/bystandersGoing public: a challenge for the group“Perpetrator”-“Victim”—entanglements in the large group of PAKHExample I: Latent victim competitionExample 2: A "‘disreputable’’ love-split loyalties to perpetrator-parentsExample 3: The demand for absolute solidarity—strong loyalties to victimised parentsExample 4: Overcoming the power of collective identitySummarising interpretation of the group process against the backdrop of the contextual German societyFindings and conclusionsA process of transformationAcknowledgmentsNotesReferencesEpilogue Daring to empathiseObstacles and opportunitiesMaster narrativesLoyalty and courageDelegations and obligationsCross-cultural fertilisationNotesReferencesAppendix A: Submitted to the president of the Protestant (Lutheran) Church of Wuerttemberg, Theophil Wurm, in May 1933 by Pastors Rudolf Daur, Fritz Pfafflin jun., and Hermann Umfrid
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