The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Activism

Four paradigms of translational activismWhat makes a translation activist?overviewsNoteReferencesI: Theorising translation and activismTheory, practice, activism: Gramsci as a translation theoristIntroduction: Gramsci and the question of languageConcepts of translation (and activism) in GramsciTranslation between languagesTranslation between paradigmsTranslation between theory and actionThe concept of historical bloc and activismTranslating Gramsci—a comparative viewItalian: Gramsci liberatedEnglish: Gramsci's plural voicePolish: Gramsci, the dead classicProgressive activism in Poland—why we are losing and can Gramsci help?From translation theory to activist practice: personal reflection and conclusionsRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesActivist translation, alliances, and performativity Translating Judith Butler's Notes Toward a Performative Theory of Assembly into ItalianIntroductionThe translation into Italian of Butler's Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyActivist translation and performativityActivist translation, solidarity, and alliancesConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesThought/translationFarhadpour, prismatically translated: philosophical prose and the activist agendaMorad Farhadpour: a biographical sketchThought/translationRelated topicsNotesFurther readingSelect bibliographyTranslating Marx in Japan: Yoshimoto Taka’aki and Japanese MarxismOrigins of modern Japan and translating Karl MarxPost-war Japanese Marxism, Yoshimoto Taka'aki's reading of Marx, and the New LeftContemporary times and MarxNotesRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesII: The interpreter as activistOkyeame poma: exploring the multimodality of translation in precolonial African contextsOkyeameOkyeame pomaMultimodal translationA semiotic theory of translationIndexicalityConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesTranslator, native informant, fixer: activism and translation in Mandate PalestineIntroductionThe translator's many rolesThe ethnographer as translatorThe literary translator as activistTeacher as translator/teaching as translationConclusionRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesTranslation in the war-zone: the Gaza Strip as case studyHistorical overviewWriting about the StripWho is allowed into the Strip?'The language we spoke, not the one we understood'Culture and politics matter tooWho is responsible?Related topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesIII: The translator as activistTranslating mourning walls: Aleppo’s last wordsIntroductionThe act of sprayingMurals, graffiti, bahh, hitanThe English newsThick translation and its demandsWalls, arts and memoryMore than one possibilityThick translation and BarthesLinguistic messageVisual signsConnotative visual signsThe literal message of the poem (Qabbani's original: the 'internal' context)Aleppo: the external contextConclusionRelated topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesResistance, activism and marronage in Paul Bowles’s translations of the oral stories of TangierIntroductionPaul Bowles and his translations: an overviewBowles's resistant translation strategiesTranslation: marronage, emancipationConclusionRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesTranslators as organic intellectuals: translational activism in pre-revolutionary IranIntroductionA brief historical survey of different modes of activist translation in pre-1953 IranPolitics, power, and committed literature in Iran, 1930s-l979Translators as organic intellectualsFranklin Book ProgramsMahmoud Etemadzadeh (Behazin)Related topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesTranslating for Le Monde diplomatique en español: disciplinary norms and activist agendasIntroductionLe Monde diplomatique: overview of an activist periodicalConsolidation and internationalisation of LMd's activismThe foreign editions of LMdThe translators of the Hispanic Latin American Monde diplomatiques: activist agendas versus disciplinary normsPolitical exiles as translatorsProfessional and amateur translatorsConclusionRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesIV: Bearing witnessWritten on the heart, in broken EnglishWriting as hospitality: translating the fragment in Arabic and EnglishTheorising the fragmentThe Arabic fragment: al-shaqTqaHosting in the fragment?The re-inscribed and/or translated fragment in my workFirst spaceSecond spaceConclusion or beginningsRelated topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesJoint authorship and preface-writing practices as translation in post- ‘Years of Lead’ MoroccoThe Years of Lead, joint authorship and prefatorial practices in post-1999 MoroccoCo-authorship and preface writing as activist translationsCo-authorship as translation: from embodied experience to textPreface writing as retranslation of testimony and as co-witnessingConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesActivist narratives: Latin American testimonies in translationIntroductionTestimonial textsArgentina's 'dirty war [guerra sudd]'Guatemala: Rigoberta MenchúLatin American popular song as testimonyjudith Reyes: song, testimony and activismAli Primera: song, activism and political changeConclusionRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesV: Translation and human rightsThe right not to have an interpreter in criminal trials: the Irish language as a case studyIntroductionHistory of the Irish languageThe legal status of the Irish languageThe right to an interpreter under international law and Irish lawInterpretation in Irish courtsClaiming the right not to have an interpreterConclusionRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesThe right to understand and to be understood: urban activism and US migrants’ access to interpretersIntroductionThe US immigration systemLimited English populations and the Department of justiceActivism and local impactLocal Offices of Immigrant and Refugee AffairsGovernment and detention centresInadequate access to language accessThe role of the interpreterGovernment challengesCommunity-led solutionsLegal defence fundsLanguage access programmesCase study: New York CityPaths forward for translational activismRelated topicsFurther readingReferencesFeminism in translation: reframing human rights law through transnational Islamic feminist networksIntroductionGender, culture, and the discourse of rightsA woman-centred approachVernacularisation: translating the language of human rights lawTransnational Islamic feminist networksWomen Living Under Muslim LawsSisterhood Is Global Institute and the Claiming Our Rights manualConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesVI: Translating the vernacularAgainst a single African literary translation theoryIntroduction: limiting the infinite in African translationKnowledge production and translationThe politics of translating inter-African languagesTranslating three ways—Kiswahili into Gikuyu and English into Gikuyu and Kiswahili into EnglishThe task of the African translatorRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesThe single most translated short story in the history of African writing: Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o and the Jalada writers’ collectiveThe storyJaladaThe translation issueThe illusion of a unifying languagePractical visionCreating digital networks for translationOne story, many pathsThe future is multilingualRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesThe dialectics of dissent in postcolonial India: Vrishchik (1969–1973)IntroductionSituating Vrishchik: historical precedents and contextMultilingualism, hybridity and cultural difference: translations of vernacular literatures in VrishchikTranslational approaches to India's 'moment' of modernismDecentring the nation: confronting institutional boundariesVisibility as protest: translating non-canonical narrativesTranslation across mediums: interdiscplinary approaches to visuals and wordsRelated topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesBengali Dalit discourse as translational activism: studying a Dalit autobiographyIntroductionActivism against the hegemonic mainstreamFrom a literary journey to a socio-political journeyTranslation as translaboration: collaboration of the author and the translatorConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesVII: Translation, migration, refugeesWhat is asylum? Translation, trauma, and institutional visibilityCitation and recitation: linguistic legacies and the politics of translation in the Sahrawi refugee contextIntroductionA history of the Western SaharaCitation, recitation, and the politics of 'knowing' the Sahrawi refugee situationNasârâ: bright bonds and blurred boundariesVeiling and 'veiling' the milhafaConclusionRelated topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesResistant recipes: food, gender and translation in migrant and refugee narrativesIntroduction: food and migrationFood as a site of paradoxTowards a feminist food translation frameworkResistant recipesConclusion: beyond 'suppliers of stories'Related topicsFurther readingReferencesVIII: Translation and revolutionLate-Qing translation (1840–1911) and the political activism of Chinese evolutionismLate-Qing translation in three phases-1860: knowing the global world for military defence-1894: the study of European languages and knowledge in reformist agenda-1911 : search for European knowledge and thoughtTranslation and transformation of European thought in post-1894 political discourseYan Fu: the identity and task of the translator in political enlightenment and actionKang Youwei and Liang Qichao: the task of translation in constitutionalist reformSun Yat-sen: European thought and Chinese revolutionary discourseChinese evolutionism as a case study of 'political mobilisation' in post-1894 translationYan Fu's nationalist translation of evolutionismEvolutionism and women's rights in the agenda of reformRacial classification in Zou Rong's revolutionary manifestoThe 'agency' and 'potentiality' of the Chinese language in post-1894 translationRelated topicsFurther readingReferences‘The pen is mightier than the sword’: exploring the ‘warrior’ Lu Xun from 1903 to 1936IntroductionLu Xun as an activist translator and revolutionaryTranslation as resistance-1917: Conflict, aggression, short stories/novels, social change, reform-1926: New Culture Movement, antifeudalism, enlightenment, revolution-1936: Civil war, Marxism, proletarian literature'Hard translation' as activism and revolutionTranslators as revolutionary activistsConclusionRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesThe political modes of translation in Iran: national words, right sentences, class paragraphsBetween nothing and no commentA dichronism since 1979The political and the translationalNational wordsRight sentencesClass paragraphsDichronism in the 2000s: towards a resolutionRelated topicsNoteFurther readingReferencesCivil resistance through online activist translation in Taiwan’s Sunflower Student MovementIntroductionThe Sunflower Student Movement: overviewCollectives and individuals in Taiwan activist translationActivist translation with volunteer translation communities in EuropeActivist translation in other place-based protest movementsActivist translations during the Sunflower Student Movement—a case of postings on pre-2015 CNN iReportFeature 1: mixture of different genres of source texts and use of translation to support one's opinionFeature 2: more than one translation of the same source textFeature 3: different modes of translation of the same source textFeature 4: one translation reviewed and revised online by different internet usersFeature 5: waiving authorship or copyrightThe sociology of activist translation in the Sunflower Student MovementRelated topicsNotesFurther readingReferencesAfterword: postcolonialism, activism, and translationAnticolonialism and activismPostcolonialism and activismReferences
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