Waste Management

Waste management is the biggest environmental problem in most urban areas and can lead to environmental pollution in many ways and affect drainage systems (Figs. 18.1, 18.2, and 18.3). The amount of solid waste generated per individual, homestead, or industry is usually high and requires a very comprehensive collection and disposal mechanism, ideally with facilities for sorting at source. In such cases organic waste is converted to manure or used to produce energy while most other types of waste are recycled. When it comes to liquid waste and effluents from industries, proper mechanisms are required to treat the waste to levels where no harm can result from discharging back to the environment.

Fig. 18.1 An unregulated roadside garbage dump site in Nairobi where informal sorting of polythene is also undertaken

Fig. 18.2 Industrial effluent discharge from a blocked sewer line showing waste treatment may be inadequate

Fig. 18.3 Solid waste blocking drainage systems in Nairobi, Kenya

Air Pollution

Air pollution comes from different sources in urban environments. The first major source is combustion of fossil fuels from vehicles and industries (Fig. 18.4). As the middle class continues to expand in developing countries, so do the number of vehicles on the roads. The maintenance of vehicles is usually a major contributor to how efficient their combustion process is and those that are badly maintained will emit exhaust gases that are not well combusted. This, combined with bad fuel quality, exacerbates the problem. Bad fuel quality may be due to use of outdated crude oil refining technology or due to illegal adulteration of fuel by mixing different types, e.g., diesel with kerosene.

Other sources of air pollution include burning of waste and, perhaps worst of all, rubber (e.g., burning old tires to remove the steel ply inside) and plastic waste, especially in unmanaged dumpsites. Rubber and plastics release substantial amounts of toxic gases into the air which not only contributes to global warming but also to health problems among those inhaling the air. Open tire fire emissions include pollutants, such as particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxides (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). They also include hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dioxins, furans, hydrogen chloride, benzene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and metals such as arsenic, cadmium, nickel, zinc, mercury, chromium, and vanadium (Lemieuxa et al. 2004).

Fig. 18.4 Emission of gases from fossil fuels contribute to the amount and concentration of greenhouse gases in cities such as Nairobi

Lack of grass cover or properly paved roads and walkways leaves the soil exposed and constant traction by vehicles and human traffic results in dusty conditions that lead to respiratory diseases, as well as dusty buildings and installations. Urban dust is more likely to carry harmful substances including microbes, because often drainage systems block due to runoff soil and organic waste flooding the roads, and the micro-organisms can then be spread via dust. Therefore, if well-managed green areas and paved surfaces exist, these problems would be minimized.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure development is a key measure of urban growth. All developments should ideally be well planned with the necessary regulatory approvals including minimizing environmental impacts by undergoing an impact evaluation. Measures to mitigate environmental impact should be put in place during project implementation and maintained after commissioning. In Kenya for example, the National Environmental Management Authority (NEMA) or Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) (depending on scope) has to approve all projects after an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been conducted. Despite the regulations being followed, however, compliance challenges exist, especially in

Fig. 18.5 Proper designation of clear zones along roadsides can help avoid such vegetation disturbance and better management for outdoor adversing space

ensuring that what is approved on paper is actually implemented during and after inception of the project. The capacity of such institutions may be limited such that each project is not monitored and assessed as it ideally should be.

An example of an urban environmental problem affecting green due to infrastructure development is the information technology industry. In the last 5 years or so, Kenya and the region as a whole have invested heavily in fiber optic connectivity with up to three international cable landings connecting Kenya and the rest of the world. Most if not all major towns now have a connection using the fiber optic network. Companies that have invested in the cable are now racing to connect as many buildings as possible and the negative effect of this is that there is no common cabling approach. This means that different companies dig up the same routes at different times and the result is repeated disturbance, while environmental restoration is not always to the previous standard or better.

Another example of challenges to green urban areas is the billboard advertising industry. While strategic positioning is important in brand visibility, urban greening programs could affect visibility over time as the trees mature. Observations around Nairobi show that this is countered by trimming trees, which is not ideal for coexistence between outdoor advertising industry and sound ecologically friendly urban environmental management (Fig. 18.5). This is a severe problem that needs to be addressed by the city management authorities and the advertising companies in conjunction with the NEMA.

 
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