Advances in Wheat Genetics From Genome to Field

I Wheat Genetics: Past, Present, and FutureProf. H. Kihara's Genome Concept and Advancements in Wheat Cytogenetics in His SchoolDiscovery of Polyploidy and Cytogenetics of Interploid Hybrids in WheatKihara's Genome Concept and Supporting EvidenceGenome Analysis and a Re-evaluation on Genome HomologyPlasmon Analysis as the Counter Part of Genome AnalysisPersistence of Genetic Effects of Ae. caudata Plasmon on Wheat PhenotypesReconstitution of Ae. caudata from Its Genome and Plasmon Separated for Half a Century and Paternal mtDNA Transmission in WheatHow a Gene from Japan Revolutionized the World of Wheat: CIMMYT's Quest for Combining Genes to Mitigate Threats to Global Food SecurityThe Origins of Norin 10From Norin 10 to the Green RevolutionThe Impact of the Green RevolutionCIMMYT TodayConclusionII Germplasm and Genetic DiversityGenetic Resources of TriticumIntroductionParadigm ShiftsIn Situ as Opposed to Ex Situ Maintenance of PGRInclusion of Neglected and Underutilized Cultivated PlantsMethods of Analysing Diversity Within and Between TaxaMethods of EvaluationStorage and Reproduction in GenebanksOutlookDevelopment of Core Set of Wheat (Triticum spp.) Germplasm Conserved in the National Genebank in IndiaIntroductionMaterial and MethodsExperimental Site and MaterialTraits StudiedStatistical AnalysisResults and DiscussionGenebank MaterialCore Set DevelopmentEvaluation of CoreValidation of CoreShannon-Weaver Diversity IndexConclusionsTransfer to Wheat of Potentially New Stem Rust Resistance Genes from Aegilops speltoidesIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionGenetic Variation and Its Geographical Distribution in Aegilops caudata L.: Morphology, Hybrid Sterility and Gametocidal GenesGeographical Distribution of the Two VarietiesHybrid SterilityCytogenetic Differentiation into Western and Eastern Geographical GroupsGametocidal-Like Genes Cause the Sterility in Intraspecific F1 HybridsGenetic Control of the Diagnostic Morphology of the Two VarietiesGeographical Differentiation and Establishment of the Present Geographical Distribution in Ae. caudataIII Cytogenetics and Allopolyploid EvolutionWheat Chromosome AnalysisLaying the Foundation of Wheat Chromosome Research: Genome Analyzer MethodLaying the Foundation for Cytogenetic and Genome Mapping: The Wheat Aneuploid StocksLaying the Foundation for Analysis of Chromosome Structure: Chromosome Banding and In Situ Hybridization MethodsLaying the Foundation for Wheat Chromosome Manipulation: An Integrated Approach for Alien Genetic TransfersLooking to the FutureNew Aneuploids of Common WheatAneuploids of Common WheatAdvanced Techniques to Check AneuploidsGametocidal MechanismDeletion Stocks of Common WheatDissection of Alien ChromosomesPCR-Based Mass Selection of Gc-Induced Deletions for Specific ChromosomesEpilogueChromosomal Changes over the Course of Polyploid Wheat Evolution and DomesticationIV Toward Whole Genome SequencingComprehensive Functional Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags in Common WheatLarge-Scale Collection of Genes Expressed in Common WheatFunctional Analysis of ESTs in Common WheatFull-Length cDNA Collection in Common WheatIdentification of Standard Transcripts in Common WheatChromosome Assignment of Expressed Genes in Common WheatConclusionDevelopment of the BAC Physical Maps of Wheat Chromosome 6B for Its Genomic SequencingGenome Sequencing Project for Chromosome 6BChromosome 6B-Specific BAC LibrariesBAC Contig ConstructionDevelopment of DNA Markers for Anchoring BAC Contigs to the Specific Genomic Regions on Chromosome 6BConcluding RemarksV Structural and Functional GenomicsSequencing of Wheat Chromosome 6B: Toward Functional GenomicsChromosome by Chromosome SequencingSurvey Sequencing and Annotation of Chromosome 6BApplication of Chromosome 6B Sequences to Wheat GenomicsGenetic Mechanisms of Vernalization Requirement Duration in Winter Wheat CultivarsMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionThe vrn-A1 Gene Controlling Vernalization Requirement Duration in Winter Wheat CultivarsA Critical Point Mutation in vrn-A1 at the Protein LevelA Novel Haplotype of vrn-A1 at the Protein LevelDiverse VRN-A1 Proteins in Winter Wheat and Spring Wheat CultivarsApplication of Multiple Molecular Markers for VRN-A1Building Ultra-Dense Genetic Maps in the Presence of Genotyping Errors and Missing DataIntroductionGeometry of Genotyping Space in the Presence of Marker Typing ErrorsThe Proposed Method and AlgorithmResults and DiscussionVI Functional Gene Analysis and Molecular ToolsExploiting Comparative Biology and Genomics to Understand a Trait in Wheat, Ph1IntroductionThe Basic Chromosome Pairing and Recombination ProcessThe Power of a Cell Biological ExperimentPh1 Locus at a Molecular LevelWhat Pairing in Euploid Wheat Itself Tells Us?Independent Centromere PairingSummaryThe Specific Features of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Regulation in WheatIntroductionStructural Genes of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in WheatGenes Determining Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Different Parts of Wheat PlantMapping of the Genes Determining Anthocyanin Pigmentation TraitsTranscriptional Analysis of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis Structural Genes in Different Wheat OrgansConclusionAssociation of Wheat miRNAs with Hybrid Incompatibility in Interspecific Crosses of Triticum and AegilopsHybrid Incompatibility in Higher PlantsAbnormal Phenotypes in Wheat HybridsWheat microRNAs and Their Association with Hybrid IncompatibilityHigh Efficiency Wheat Transformation Mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciensIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResultsPreliminary StudyProduction of Transgenic WheatCharacterization of the Transgenic WheatDiscussionExtra Early-Flowering (exe) Mutants in Einkorn Wheat Generated by Heavy-Ion Beam IrradiationIntroductionIdentification of exe MutantsMorphological Characteristics of the exe MutantsHypothetical Model for Extra Early-Flowering PhenotypeVII Biotic Stress ResponseStem Rust Resistance: Two ApproachesIntroductionComparative Mapping of Ug99 Resistance on Chromosome 6DSSrCadSr42Other Sr Genes on Chromosome 6DS that Confer Resistance to Ug99 Stem RustConclusionChromosome 7D: Carrier of a Suppressor and a NonsuppressorA Suppressor of Stem Rust ResistanceAdult-Plant Resistance Genes Can Act as a NonsuppressorConclusionsConcluding RemarksGermplasm Enhancement for Resistance to Pyrenophora tritici-repentis in WheatNext Generation Sequencing Enabled Genetics in Hexaploid WheatIntroductionWheat GeneticsWheat GenomicsSNP Selection and Marker DesignHigh-Throughput GenotypingFinal RemarksVIII Abiotic Stress ResponseGenomics Approaches to Dissect the Genetic Basis of Drought Resistance in Durum WheatIntroductionDissecting the Genetic Basis of Drought Resistance in Durum WheatQTLs for Drought-Adaptive TraitsImproving Drought Resistance via Marker-Assisted SelectionFuture PerspectivesConclusionsHybrid Breeding in WheatStatus Quo of Wheat Hybrid BreedingHybridization Systems in WheatAdvantages of Hybrids in Comparison to LinesPrediction of Hybrid Wheat PerformanceUpcoming Challenges for Wheat Hybrid BreedingBroadening the Genetic Diversity of Common and Durum Wheat for Abiotic Stress Tolerance BreedingEarly Maturity in Wheat for Adaptation to High Temperature StressTemperature Stress and Wheat ProductionHeat Adaption StrategiesPerformance of Early Maturing Wheat LinesConclusionsGene Expression Profiles Involved in Development of Freezing Tolerance in Common WheatWheat Cold Acclimation and Freezing ToleranceTranscriptome Analysis During Cold AcclimationFructan Biosynthesis Pathway and Freezing ToleranceIX Improvement of Grain QualityCoping with Wheat Quality in a Changing Environment: Proteomics Evidence for Stress Caused by Environmental ChangesHigh Temperature Is a Major Factor Affecting Wheat ProductionExperiments Used for Heat Stress StudiesMain Proteomics Responses of Developing Wheat Grain to High TemperatureMajor Impacts of High Temperature on Energy Metabolism and Starch SynthesisSynthesis of Wheat Storage Proteins Is Not Drastically Affected by High TemperatureGlutenin Polymers Are Strongly Impacted by High TemperatureVariations in Dough Properties Resulting from High TemperatureSome Proposals to Cope with Wheat Quality in a Changing EnvironmentStarch Modification: A Model for Wheat MAS BreedingIntroductionWaxy Wheat (GBSSI Mutant)High Amylose Wheat (SSIIa Mutant)Sweet Wheat (GBSSI and SSIIa Mutant)Expanding Genotype Availability: Combining MutationsFuture DirectionsQuality Characteristics of Soft Kernel Durum; A New Cereal CropProposal of International Gluten Research GroupCurrent Status of Glu-3 Allele NomenclatureSharing MaterialsSharing MethodsFunctional Analysis of Gluten ProteinsUnification with Durum Glu-3 AllelesGliadin AnalysisForming an International Gluten Research GroupFurther PerspectiveEnlargement of the Genetic Diversity for Grain Quality in Bread Wheat Through Alien IntrogressionComplex G × E Interactions and QTL Clusters Govern End-Use Quality Traits in Hexaploid WheatSelection for End-Use Quality Traits in Hexaploid Wheat: The ChallengesContributions of G, E and GEI Effects for DRT and BMQ TraitsTrait Correlations and the Influence of the EnvironmentClustering and Location-Specificity of BMQ and DRT QTLsConclusionsA Consistent QTL for Flour Yield on Chromosome 3B in the Soft Winter Wheat Variety, KitahonamiIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionX Marker-Assisted BreedingRecent Improvements in Japanese Wheat VarietiesBackground: Domestic Wheat in JapanWheat Breeding in JapanMarker-Assisted Selection of Wheat Breeding in JapanDetermining the Order of Resistance Genes Qsng-3BS, Fhb1 and Sr2 and Combining Them in Coupling on Wheat Chromosome 3BSIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionMeta-analysis of Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight in Tetraploid Wheat: Implications for Durum Wheat BreedingIntroductionFHB Resistance in Durum WheatQTL Studies in Tetraploid WheatConclusions and PerspectivesInterest of a Multiparental and Outcrossing Wheat Population for Fine MappingIntroductionMaterials and MethodsResults and DiscussionThe Effect of Earliness per se (Eps) Genes on Flowering Time in Bread WheatXI Toward Sustainable Wheat ProductionRecapitulating the OECD-CRP Session (Sponsored by the OECD's Co-operative Research Program on Biological Resource Management for Sustainable Agricultural Systems)Aim of This Session and Its Relation with OECD-CRPMajor Highlights of the PresentationsWheat Research for Sustainable Food Chain for Climate Change and Global Food SecurityEnhancing Relevance and Efficiency of Wheat Science for the SocietyOutcomes/Conclusions in Terms of Policy RelevanceExploring Genetic Resources to Increase Adaptation of Wheat to Climate ChangeIntroductionIdentify Crop Characteristics Conferring Stress AdaptationExploration of Genetic Resources for Adaptive Traits: LandracesInter-specific Hybridization to Broaden the Crop Gene PoolTransgenic ApproachesHigh Throughput and Precision PhenotypingStrategic Crossing to Achieve Cumulative Gene ActionConclusionsGenomic Approaches Towards Durable Fungal Disease Resistance in WheatGenomics in Wheat: New Tools and ResourcesNatural Diversity as a Rich Resource for Basic and Applied Wheat GeneticsTransgenic Strategies for a More Durable Use of Major Resistance GenesMolecular Studies on the Durable Wheat Resistance GeneLr34/Yr18/Pm38/Sr57New Tools for Resistance Breeding Based on Pathogen GenomicsConclusionsReview and New Progress in Wheat Wide Hybridization for Improving the Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic StressesResearch BackgroundThe Establishment of Breeding ProcedureThe First Released Variety, Xiaoyan 6The Second Released Variety, Xiaoyan 54The Third Released Varieties, Xiaoyan 81 and 60The Application of Partial AmphiploidsSynthesis and ConclusionGlobal Crop Improvement Networks to Bridge Technology GapsIntroductionMajor Objectives of IWINBreeding Methods and ApproachesGermplasm Distribution and Capacity DevelopmentVariety Release, Adoption and ImpactsBreeding ProgressFuture Directions and ProspectsGenomic Selection in Plants: Empirical Results and Implications for Wheat BreedingDietary Fibre: Wheat Genes for Enhanced Human HealthWheat as a Source of Dietary FibreCell Wall Composition of WheatGenetic Variation and Heritability of AX ContentVariation in AX StructureGenes Responsible for AX Synthesis in Wheat EndospermIdentification of Candidate GenesRole of GT61 Genes in AX SynthesisRole of GT43 and GT47 Genes in AX SynthesisCombining Forward and Reverse Genetics to Develop Wheat with Enhanced Health Benefits
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