Routledge Handbook on Arab Media

Debunking the myth of exceptionalismIdentity politicsRegional rivalryNational security and media policiesDigital transformationLimitationsReferencesMASS MEDIA IN ALGERIAIntroductionEmergence and development of print media in AlgeriaAlgerian press after independenceRadio and television in Algeria (establishment and development)Media laws and regulations in AlgeriaFinancial regulation of media in AlgeriaConclusionReferencesNEW AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN ALGERIAIntroductionInternet development in AlgeriaSocial media usage in Algeria, emerging trends and regulatory ecologySocio-political significance of social media: potential and challengesConclusionNotesReferencesMEDIA IN BAHRAIN - A CONTESTED SPHEREIntroductionHistorical backgroundMedia post-independenceRegulating the mediaChallenges post-2011ConclusionReferencesPRESS IN EGYPT: Impact on social and political transformationsHistorical backgroundEgyptian press business modelsNewspapers owned by individualsState-owned newspapers (national newspapers)Newspapers owned by political parties (partisan newspapers)Newspapers owned by companies (private newspapers)Competition: audience and market shareLaws and legislationRegulatory bodiesA Journalists Syndicate (1940-present)Supreme Press Council (1978-2018)National Press Authority (2016-present)Press freedomsThe role of the press in social and political changeConclusionNotesReferencesTHE EGYPTIAN BROADCASTING SECTOR BETWEEN 1920 AND 2020IntroductionHistory of Egyptian radioHistory of Egyptian televisionOwnership in the broadcasting sectorConclusionNotesReferencesSOCIAL MEDIA IN EGYPT: The debate continuesIntroductionHistorical backgroundMain providersAudience share in a competitive marketRegulatory environment after 25 January uprisingRegulatory bodiesSocial and political functions of social mediaMediated mobilization and participatory journalism during the uprisingCivil society and social media after TahrirConclusionReferencesIRAQI PRESS - BETWEEN PROPAGANDA AND SECTARIANISMIntroductionThe press after the fall of the monarchy in July 1958The Iraqi press under the Ba’ath Party 1968-1979The partisan pressIraqi media under Saddam 1979-2003Babil newspaper - a special experiment in the history of Iraqi pressThe sanctions and the Iraqi pressIraqi newspapers after the American invasion 2003The coverage of the new pressAzzaman and Al Sabah newspapersConclusionReferencesBROADCASTING IN IRAQ-FROM PLURALISM TO ETHNO-SECTARIANISMIntroductionHistorical backgroundMarket competitionLaws and regulationsGovernment control versus market rulesSocial and political functions of broadcasting: politics and media economicsMedia and developmentConclusionReferences and further readingSOCIAL MEDIA AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN IRAQIntroductionSocial media useIraqi Media LawsPolitics, culture, and social mediaConclusionReferencesTHE PRINT AND ONLINE MEDIA IN JORDAN -BETWEEN LIBERALIZATION AND CONTROLIntroductionA brief history of Jordanian print and online mediaLegal frameworks and the current regulatory environmentThe political economy of Jordanian print and online mediaCensorship and soft containmentThe potential for social and political changeConclusionReferencesBROADCAST MEDIA IN JORDAN AND THE (RENTIER) STATEIntroductionBroadcast media and becoming a nationState-led broadcasting: laws and regulationsChange brings the same: the social and political functions of broadcastingAn ending or a beginning?References and further readingCHRONICLING KUWAIT’S MEDIA EVOLUTION The politics of technology and regulationIntroductionHistorical backgroundThe beginning of the broadcasting mediaThe Internet and digital mediaThe media in Kuwait’s constitutionMedia regulationsGovernment control versus market rulesCensorshipConclusion: media and social changeNotesReferencesWHITHER THE LEBANESE PRESS? THE TRIALS AND TRIBULATIONS FACING THE LEBANESE PRINT MEDIAIntroductionHistorical backgroundPress laws and regulationsSocial and political functions of the pressConclusionAPPENDIXNotesReferences and further readingLEBANESE BROADCASTING: Small country, influential mediaIntroductionLebanese radioMain radio stations and current issuesIn the spotlight: how Sawt al-Sha‘b illustrates audience reach issues in Lebanese radio broadcastingLebanese televisionMain television channels and current issuesIn the spotlight: how LBC illustrates the impact of Lebanese television on the Arab regionBroadcasting policies and journalists’ censorshipConclusionReferencesMEDIA AND SOCIAL CHANGE IN LIBYAHistorical backgroundLibyan radioLibyan televisionBusiness models for TV and radio broadcasting and the pressAudience share and market competitionLaws and regulationsChallenges of how to regulate after the “Arab Spring” revolutionsThe Internet and social media useSocial and political functions of broadcastingCensorshipAudiences and media as spaces of free speechConclusionNotesReferences and further readingMEDIA IN MAURITANIA: Challenges and developmentIntroductionMedia pluralism: emergence and early challengesPublic and private mediaRadio and TV broadcastingConstraints affecting the development of journalismJournalism and publishing lawsLiberalization of the audiovisual mediaOutcomes of liberalizing the audiovisual mediaCurrent challenges of Mauritanian mediaConclusionNotesReferencesTHE MOROCCAN PRESS: Challenges and developmentIntroductionMain playersBusiness models and audience shareAdvertising marketLaws and regulationsThe 2016 Press and Publication LawThe Anti-Terrorism LawThe National Press Council (NPC)Social and political functions of the press: interplay between state and mediaThe four phases of press developmentUncertain beginnings (1991-1998)Free retrospection (1999-2005)Confrontation and censorship (2006-2011)Normalization and self-censorship (2011-2020)ConclusionReferencesMEDIA CONFIGURATION IN MOROCCOIntroductionHistorical backgroundBackground and contextualization - Moroccan broadcasting sectorRadioTelevisionNotable developments in media configuration and the process of liberalizationLegal framework and regulations of the media landscape in MoroccoVoices of content producers: advertising and competitionConclusionAcknowledgmentsReferencesTHE NEW AND SOCIAL MEDIA IN MOROCCOIntroductionHistorical backgroundPolitics of “digital” Morocco and information societyLegal infrastructure: Internet and cyber lawsSocial and political functions of social mediaFreedom of speech onlineCivil society developmentConclusionReferencesMASS MEDIA FOR DEVELOPMENT - THE MEDIA IN THE SULTANATE OF OMANIntroductionThe emergence of Omani mass mediaCensorship and self-censorshipWorking in tandem with the stateMedia rules and regulations in OmanConclusionReferencesPALESTINIAN MEDIA BETWEEN PARTISANSHIP AND PROPAGANDAThe development of the Palestinian pressThe development of Palestinian broadcastingThe stateThe third sector “NGOs”Private sectorNon-state broadcastingLaws and regulationsSocial and political functions of broadcastingConclusionReferencesPALESTINIAN NEW MEDIAIntroductionHistorical backgroundMain players: key outletsBusiness models and competitionInternet usage for Palestinians in IsraelIsraeli competitionLaws and regulationsThe contemporary regulatory environmentState media versus independent mediaCensorshipSocial and political functions of this mediumConclusionReferences and further readingAppendix 1 2017 ICT DEVELOPMENT INDEX BY COUNTRYAppendix 2 PARTIAL LIST OF SOCIAL MEDIA-RELATED ARRESTS BY ISRAELI AND PALESTINIAN AUTHORITIES IN 2017MEDIA DEVELOPMENTS IN QATARIntroductionThe media landscape in QatarQatari PressRadio broadcasting services in QatarTelevision broadcasting servicesDigital media in QatarLaws and regulations on media and journalistsSocial and political functions of broadcastingConclusionReferencesAppendix NEWSPAPER USAGE IN QATARAL JAZEERA NETWORK AND THE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE GLOBAL COMMUNICATION FLOWIntroductionArab broadcasting before the Al Jazeera revolutionReporting the world differently: Al Jazeera’s stanceThe Arab Spring revolutions: Al Jazeera’s galvanizing effectIn the midst of Algerian and Sudanese social activism: Al Jazeera’s bustling public sphereWar on Al Jazeera’s daring journalismConclusionNotesReferencesTHE SAUDI PRESS - THE COMBINED POWER OF WEALTH AND RELIGIONIntroductionThe beginnings of the Saudi pressMedia conglomeratesJournalism education and practiceForms of censorshipClerics as censorsOnline pressSaudi ministry of mediaThe (un)declared mission of the pressConclusionNoteReferencesSAUDI BROADCASTING MEDIA - A TOOL FOR REGIONAL INFLUENCEIntroductionHistorical backgroundClerics against televisionSaudi-funded pan-Arab televisionThe fluidity of broadcasting regulationsCultural gatekeepingConclusionReferencesTHE JANUS-FACED NEW MEDIA IN SAUDI ARABIAIntroductionHistorical backgroundNew media vs. social mediaA Saudi social media snapshot: users and key social media outletsSocial media use profiles - YouTube and TwitterGoverning the netSocial and political functions of social mediaSocial media uses beyond activismConclusionNotesReferencesMASS MEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN SOMALIAIntroductionNewspapersRadioTelevisionMedia educationRole of mass media in societyConclusionReferencesINTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA DEVELOPMENT IN SOMALIAIntroductionThe telecommunication sectorMain providers and key playersLaws and regulationsSocial and political functions of social mediaConclusionReferencesPRESS IN SUDAN: Models, regulatory frameworks, and developmentIntroductionThe emergence of the pressPress-politics relationship from 1953 to the 2019 uprisingPress business modelsLegal and regulatory frameworksPress freedom in SudanFuture of the Sudanese PressReferencesRADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING IN SUDANHistorical background of radio in SudanLive and recorded programsLeading public opinionPreserving the national heritageThe establishment of Sudanese TVThe National Radio and Television CorporationPowers of the board of directorsRadio broadcasting as an independent bodyAdministrative development of televisionPlanning and program rounds systemPrograms percentageTraining coursesConclusionReferencesTHE SYRIAN PRESS AND ONLINE MEDIA: A driver of ArabismIntroductionThe beginningsAfter BaathPost-2011 uprisingNews agenciesNew media - from prohibitions to chaosConclusionNotesReferencesTHE “SOFT” POWER OF SYRIAN BROADCASTINGIntroductionThe voice of ArabismThe 2011 uprising and the fragmentation of Syrian mediaSyrian drama - the hallmark of Syrian broadcastingThe transformation of the drama productionDrama as a tool of soft powerConclusionNoteReferencesPRESS IN TUNISIA: From French colonization to post-revolution eraIntroductionEarly stages of press developmentImpact of the French colonization on the development of the Tunisian pressPost-independence era: Bourguiba and the pressChallenges for the newspaper market during the Ben Ali eraA transformed newspaper market post-revolution eraReferencesBROADCASTING IN TUNISIA FROM INDEPENDENCE TO POST-2011 REVOLUTION ERAIntroductionBroadcasting under the rule of Habib Bourguiba (1956-1987)Bourguiba’s long authoritarian ruleMedia as weapons to harass political opponentsMedia scene during the Ben Ali Era (1987-2011)Transformation of the broadcasting market post-2011 revolutionNew challenges in the post-revolution media sceneConclusionReferencesSOCIAL MEDIA NETWORKS AND THE DEMOCRATIC TRANSITION IN TUNISIA: From censorship to freedomIntroductionThe emergence of the Internet in Tunisia and its transformation into an alternative platformNew media amid the Tunisian revolutionSocial media networks and the democratic transition in TunisiaWill the current legal framework protect free speech on social media?ConclusionReferencesMEDIA IN THE UAE -CREATING A NATIONAL VOICEIntroductionEmirati pressEmirati broadcastingMedia regulations in the UAEThe role of national media in reinforcing national identity and economic growthBroadcasting and economic developmentConclusionNotesReferencesMEDIA IN YEMEN -NARRATIVES OF POLARIZATION AND FRAGMENTATIONIntroductionFragmentation - Yemeni media before 1990Mobilization - Yemeni media in diasporaImagined community - media after the 1990 unificationMedia regulationsYemeni journalistsRe-fragmentation - media post-2011New media in YemenConclusionReferences
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