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Nuclear Back-end and Transmutation Technology for Waste Disposal

I Basic Research for Nuclear Transmutation and Disposal: Physical and Chemical Studies Relevant to Nuclear Transmutation and Disposal Such as Measurement or Evaluation of Nuclear Cross-Section DataNuclear Transmutation of Long-Lived Nuclides with Laser Compton Scattering: Quantitative Analysis by Theoretical ApproachIntroductionCalculation MethodReaction via Giant Dipole ResonanceHigh-Energy Photons Obtained by Laser Compton ScatteringSetup of the Calculation for 137CsResults and DiscussionNuclear Transmutation of 137Cs with Laser Compton ScatteringComparison with Other NuclidesConclusionRecent Progress in Research and Development in Neutron Resonance Densitometry (NRD) for Quantification of Nuclear Materials in Particle-Like DebrisIntroductionNeutron Resonance DensitometryThe Concept of NRDA Rough Draft of an NRD FacilityDevelopment of a γ-Ray Spectrometer for NRCA/PGAExperiments for NRD DevelopmentsSummaryDevelopment of Nondestructive Assay to Fuel Debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (1): Experimental Validation for the Application of a Self-Indication MethodIntroductionExperimentResults and DiscussionSummaryDevelopment of Nondestructive Assay of Fuel Debris of Fukushima Daiichi NPP (2): Numerical Validation for the Application of a Self-Indication MethodIntroductionCalculational Model and ConditionNumerical Results and DiscussionConclusionPrecise Measurements of Neutron Capture Cross Sections for LLFPs and MAsIntroductionPresent Situation of Data for LLFPs and MAsMeasurement Activities by the Activation MethodMeasurement Activities at J-PARC/MLF/ANNRISummaryDevelopment of the Method to Assay Barely Measurable Elements in Spent Nuclear Fuel and Application to BWR 9 x 9 FuelIntroductionAnalytical ProcedureFuture PlansConclusionII Development of ADS Technologies: Current Status of Accelerator-Driven System DevelopmentContribution of the European Commission to a European Strategy for HLW Management Through Partitioning & TransmutationPresentation of MYRRHA and Its Role in the European P&T StrategyIntroductionMYRRHA: A Flexible Fast-Spectrum Irradiation FacilityThe MYRRHA AcceleratorDesign of the Core and Primary SystemMYRRHA, A Research Tool in Support of the European Roadmap for P&TConclusionsDesign of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental FacilityIntroductionOutline of the Transmutation Experimental FacilityOutline of TEF-TOutline of TEF-PDesign of Spallation Target for TEF-TConclusionAccelerator-Driven System (ADS) Study in Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute (KURRI)IntroductionExperimental SettingsUranium-Loaded ADS ExperimentsThorium-Loaded ADS BenchmarksResults and DiscussionUranium-Loaded ADS ExperimentsThorium-Loaded ADS ExperimentsConclusionsIII Mechanical and Material Technologies for ADS: Development of Mechanical Engineering or Material EngineeringRelated Technologies for ADS and Other Advanced Reactor SystemsHeat Transfer Study for ADS Solid Target:IntroductionSurface Wettability Change by IrradiationSample and Irradiation FacilityContact Angle MeasurementEffect of Irradiations on Surface WettabilityEffect of Boiling Heat Transfer on Surface WettabilityExperimental Setup and ProcedureResults and DiscussionConclusionsExperimental Study of Flow Structure and Turbulent Characteristics in Lead– Bismuth Two-Phase FlowIntroductionMeasurement TechniquesFour-Sensor ProbeElectromagnetic ProbeExperimental SetupResults and DiscussionRadial Profiles of Two-Phase Flow PropertiesComparison of Interfacial Area ConcentrationBubble-Induced TurbulenceConclusionsIV Basic Research on Reactor Physics of ADS: Basic Theoretical Studies for Reactor Physics in ADSTheory of Power Spectral Density and Feynman-Alpha Method in AcceleratorDriven System and Their Higher-Order Mode EffectsIntroductionTheory of Feynman-α Method in ADSTheory of Power Spectral Density in ADSConclusionsStudy on Neutron Spectrum of Pulsed Neutron ReactorIntroductionExperiment at KUCA and Measured ResultsAnalysis and Discussion of Neutron FluxNeutron Flux DistributionNeutron SpectrumConclusionsV Next-Generation Reactor Systems: Development of New Reactor Concepts of LWR or FBR for the Next-Generation Nuclear Fuel CycleApplication of the Resource-Renewable Boiling Water Reactor for TRU Management and Long-Term Energy SupplyIntroductionRBWR SystemOverviewCore Calculation MethodRBWR-ACRBWR-TBRBWR-TB2ConclusionDevelopment of Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Fuel Fast Reactor CoreIntroductionIssues and Measures Against the Uranium-Free TRU Metallic Fast Reactor CoreParametric Analysis on the Effect of MeasuresParametric Analysis MethodologyAnalysis Results for Doppler Feedback EnhancementAnalysis Results for Burnup Reactivity Swing ReductionDeveloped Uranium-Free TRU Metallic CoreSpecification Selected for Uranium-Free TRU Metallic CorePerformance of the Uranium-Free TRU Metallic CoreConclusionsEnhancement of Transmutation of Minor Actinides by Hydride TargetIntroductionDesign of MA-Hydride TargetDesign of Core with MA-Hydride TargetTransmutation CalculationDiscussionConclusionsMethod Development for Calculating Minor Actinide Transmutation in a Fast ReactorIntroductionMA Transmutation Core ConceptMA Transmutation RateSensitivity Calculation MethodSensitivity to Infinite-Dilution Cross SectionBurn-up SensitivityDependence of Sensitivities on Numbers of Energy GroupsReduction of Prediction UncertaintyConclusionOverview of European Experience with Thorium FuelsIntroductionThorium European Research Programme HistoryTh-MOX Fuels Irradiated in LWR ConditionsThe Molten Salt ReactorConclusionsVI Reactor Physics Studies for Post Fukushima Accident Nuclear Energy: Studies from the Reactor Physics Aspect for Back-End Issues Such as Treatment of Debris from the Fukushima AccidentTransmutation Scenarios after Closing Nuclear Power PlantsIntroductionMethodologyNeutronics CalculationScenario AnalysisTransmutation Half-LifeADS Design for Pu TransmutationReference ADS (MA-ADS)Assumption of Pu FeedResult of One-Batch CoreResult of six-Batch CoreScenario AnalysisResult of LWR-OTResult of LWR-PuTResult of FRResult of ADSResult of FR+ADSImpact on the RepositoryDiscussionConclusionSensitivity Analyses of Initial Compositions and Cross Sections for Activation Products of In-Core Structure MaterialsIntroductionMethod of Calculating Sensitivity CoefficientsSensitivity AnalysesAnalyses ConditionsTarget Nuclides of Sensitivity AnalysesResults of Sensitivity AnalysesSensitivity Analysis Using the Initial Composition Based on Measured DataConclusionOptions of Principles of Fuel Debris Criticality Control in Fukushima Daiichi ReactorsIntroductionPresent Condition of 1FNPS Fuel DebrisCriticality Characteristics of Fuel DebrisOptions of Criticality Control PrinciplesPrevention of Criticality by Poison or Dry ProcessPrevention of Criticality by MonitoringPrevention of Severe ConsequenceRisk AssessmentConclusionsModification of the STACY Critical Facility for Experimental Study on Fuel Debris Criticality ControlIntroductionExperimental Study on Criticality Control for Fuel DebrisModification of STACYCritical Experiments on Criticality Safety for Fuel DebrisManufacturing and Analytical Equipment for Simulated Fuel Debris Samples [12]License Application and Schedule of the STACY ModificationConcluding SummaryVII Nuclear Fuel Cycle Policy and Technologies: National Policy, Current Status, Future Prospects and Public Acceptance of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Including Geological DisposalExpectation for Nuclear TransmutationDemand for Primary Energy and Electricity Is Increasing Year by YearGlobal Warming Is Becoming a More Serious ProblemThe Development of Renewable Energy Must Be Promoted. However, It Will Require Sufficient Resources of Time and BudgetHuman Beings Cannot Avoid Depending on Nuclear Energy as Well as Other Energy Resources, Including Renewable Energy, Which Do Not Emit CO2Nuclear Technology Must be DevelopedSafety Technology of Nuclear Energy Must Be Developed for the FutureTechnology for the Back-end of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Must Be Enhanced. The Site for Final Disposal of Nuclear Wastes Must be Determined as SoonResearch and Development of Innovative Technologies, Such as Accelerator-Driven Systems, Must Be Promoted to Encourage the Progress of Final DisposalThe Research and Development of Nuclear Technologies for Reactor Decommissioning, Safety Technology, Back-end, etc., Must Be Promoted Intensively Through International CooperationConclusionIssues of HLW Disposal in JapanConcerns on HLWCurrent Status of HLWHLW Disposal Program in JapanConcept of Geological Disposal and RiskDifficulty in Site SelectionSix Proposals by the Science Council of JapanSetting a Moratorium Period by “Temporal Safe Storage”“Management of the Total Amount” of HLWAwareness of the Limits of Scientific and Technical AbilitiesConsidering the Geological Disposal Program of High-Level Radioactive Waste Through Classroom DebateIntroductionThe Situation NowWhy has Such a Situation Occurred?Deciding the TopicResearch MethodOutline of the CoursesReflections on the CoursesResults of the Questionnaire SurveyIssues for the FutureNotesVIII Environmental Radioactivity: Development of Radioactivity Measurement Methods and Activity of Radionuclides in the Environment Monitored After the Accidents at TEPCO's Nuclear Power StationsEnvironmental Transfer of Carbon-14 in Japanese Paddy FieldsIntroductionPartitioning of 14C into Solid, Liquid, and Gas PhasesInvolvement of Microorganisms in the 14C BehaviorTransfer of 14C from Soil to Rice PlantsBehavior of 14C in Rice Paddy FieldsDevelopment of a Rapid Analytical Method for 129I in the Contaminated Water and Tree Samples at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power StationIntroductionExperimentalReagentsSeparation Using Anion-SRCombustion MethodResults and DiscussionSeparation Using Anion-SRCombustion MethodConclusionIX Treatment of Radioactive Waste: Reduction of the Radioactivity or Volume of Nuclear WastesConsideration of Treatment and Disposal of Secondary Wastes Generated from Treatment of Contaminated WaterIntroductionRequirements for an Inventory List and Online Waste Management SystemDevelopment Strategy of Waste Treatment, Storage, Transport, and Disposal TechnologiesFormation of an R&D Implementation and Evaluation TeamRequirements for Long-Term Knowledge ManagementConclusionVolume Reduction of Municipal Solid Wastes Contaminated with Radioactive Cesium by Ferrocyanide Coprecipitation TechniqueBackground and ObjectivesPrinciple of Ferrocyanide Coprecipitation for Cs RemovalExperimentalResults and DiscussionConclusion
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