Outline of the Transmutation Experimental Facility
Outline of TEF-T
For the JAEA-proposed ADS, Pb-Bi is a primary candidate of coolant and spallation target. To solve technical difficulties for Pb-Bi utilization, construction of TEF-T is planned to complete the data sets that are required for the design of ADS.
8 Design of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility 75
Fig. 8.1 Transmutation Experimental Facility
The experiments to obtain the material irradiation data for the beam window are the most important mission of TEF-T.
A high-power spallation target, which will be mainly used for material irradiation of candidate materials for a beam window of full-scale ADS, is an essential issue to realize a TEF-T. To set up the beam parameters, future ADS concepts are taken into account. In the reference case of the target, proton beam current density of 20 μA/cm2, which equals the maximum beam current density of the JAEAproposed 800 MWth ADS, was assumed.
Outline of TEF-P
Several neutronic experiments for ADS have been performed in both Europe [6, 7] and Japan. In Japan, subcritical experiments with fast neutron spectrum core were performed at the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) in JAEA/Tokai, and subcritical experiments with thermal subcritical core driven by 100 MeV protons are performed at Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute. Many experimental studies also have been performed on the neutronics of the spallation neutron source with various target materials such as lead, tungsten, mercury, and uranium. These experiments for spallation targets are also useful to validate the neutronic characteristics of ADS. However, there are no experiments combined with a spallation source installed inside the subcritical fast-neutron core. The purpose of the TEF-P is divided roughly into three subjects: (1) reactor physics aspects of the subcritical core driven by a spallation source, (2) demonstration of the controllability of the subcritical core including power control by the proton beam power adjustment, and (3) investigation of the transmutation performance of the subcritical core using a certain amount of MA and LLFP.
TEF-P is designed with referring to FCA, the horizontal table–split type critical assembly with a rectangular lattice matrix. In this concept, the plate-type fuel for FCA with various simulation materials such as lead and sodium for coolant, tungsten for solid target, ZrH for moderator, B4C for absorber, and AlN for simulating nitride fuel can be commonly used at TEF-P. Therefore, previous experiments can be correlated with TEF-P experiments. The proton beam will be introduced horizontally at the center of the fixed half assembly, and various kinds of spallation targets can be installed at various axial position of the radial center of the subcritical core. Application of MA fuel is one of the promising characteristics of TEF-P. Installation of a partial mock-up region of MA fuel with air cooling is considered to measure the physics parameters of the transmutation system. R&D to utilize MA fuel by remote handling systems is under way.
Design of Spallation Target for TEF-T
To evaluate the feasibility of a designed beam window of TEF target, numerical analysis with a three-dimensional (3D) model was performed. The analysis was done by considering the current density and shape of the incident proton beam to the target and the thermal fluid behavior of Pb-Bi around the beam window as a function of flow rate and inlet temperature. The thickness of the beam window is also considered from 2 to 3 mm. After the temperature distribution analysis, structural strength of the beam window is determined to evaluate soundness of the target. A concave shape beam window was used for this analysis. The prototype design of the beam window for TEF target system is shown in Fig. 8.2.
The material of the beam window would be a type 316 stainless steel. The concave section in the center part of the target was connected to the convex section in the terminal part, and then it was connected to the straight tube. A straight tube part has coaxially arranged annular and tube-type channels. The inner diameters of the outside tube and inside tube were set to 150 and 105 mm, respectively. The total length of the analysis region was 600 mm, which corresponds to an effective target depth for the 400 MeV proton. An irradiation sample holder, which was installed in the inner tube, holds eight irradiation specimens in the horizontal direction. The size of each specimen was 40 x 145 x 2 mm. The rectification lattice having the aperture of the plural squares type was installed at the front end of the sample holder. A slit 2 mm in width was arranged along the side of the rectification lattice to cool the sample holder by flowing Pb-Bi.
The thermal-fluid behavior of the target was analyzed by the STAR-CD. The quarter-part model was set to tetra metric type and the divided face was set to a reflected image condition. At first, Pb-Bi flowed through the annular region and joined in the center of the beam window, and then, turned over and flowed in the inner tube after having passed a rectification lattice and an irradiation sample. In a default condition, flow rate at the inlet of annulus region was set to 1 l/s, and this was equivalent to the flow velocity of 0.125 m/s. Because the Pb-Bi flow forms a
8 Design of J-PARC Transmutation Experimental Facility 77
Fig. 8.2 Prototype LBE spallation target for TEF-T
complicated turbulent flow, the standard k-ε model for high Re number type was used for a turbulence model. Heat deposition distribution by the primary proton beam, which was calculated by a hadronic cascade code PHITS , was used for the analysis. The internal pressure to the inside of the beam window was set to
0.3 MPa in consideration of the flowing Pb-Bi and the cover gas. On the outer side
of the beam window and the border of the atmosphere, release of the radiant heat was considered. Embrittlement of the structural materials by irradiation was not considered.
The analyses were performed by changing flow rates from 1 to 4 l/s. In each case, a dead region was commonly formed in the center of the inside of the beam window. The maximum velocity of Pb-Bi was confirmed at the rectification lattice part and was approximately 1.2 m/s in the case of the inlet flow rate of 1 l/s. When the inlet flow rate increased to 4 l/s, the maximum velocity in the target reached
4.8 m/s, which is too high to apply to the Pb-Bi target. The maximum temperature is 544 oC in the case of a 3-mm-thick window. The peak temperature can be decreased to 477 oC in the case of 2-mm-thick window. The temperature differences between outside and inside at the center of the window were 65 and 37 oC in the case of the 3-mm-thick window and the 2-mm-thick window, respectively. From these results, it was determined that a condition of 2 mm was desirable.
Based on the results provided by STAR-CD, analysis to verify the feasibility of the beam window was performed by ABAQUS code. The operating conditions for the first stage of material irradiation in TEF were decided by a result of the analysis on each condition. The temperature and thermal stress for the steady state were estimated using ABAQUS code, the computational code for the finite-element method. In the ABAQUS code, only a beam window was modeled as the cylinder-slab geometry. From the analysis result for the 2-mm-thick window, the stress strength reached the maximum value of 190 MPa on the outer surface of the beam window. When the maximum temperature of the beam window is adopted to 470 oC from the result of STAR-CD, maximum stress is lower than the tolerance level of the materials for fast reactor, and hence, the feasibility of a designed beam window was confirmed.