III Mechanical and Material Technologies for ADS: Development of Mechanical Engineering or Material EngineeringRelated Technologies for ADS and Other Advanced Reactor Systems
Heat Transfer Study for ADS Solid Target:
Surface Wettability and Its Effect on a Boiling Heat Transfer
Abstract In relationship to a solid target cooling system of an accelerator-driven system (ADS), wettability effect on boiling heat transfer has been experimentally investigated by irradiation with ultraviolet and gamma rays (γ-rays). The experimental apparatus consists of a copper heater block, a rectangular container, and a thermostat bath. Two copper heater blocks were fabricated: one is for radiationinduced surface activation (RISA) and the other is for photoelectric reaction by ultraviolet whose heat transfer surface is coated by a TiO2 film. These copper heater blocks were irradiated by ultraviolet or by γ-rays to change the surface wettability. Boiling heat transfer under subcooling conditions was measured before and after the irradiations to study the wettability effect. Experimental results show that nucleate boiling curves are shifted to the higher wall superheated side with the irradiated surface because of the decrease of the active nucleation sites. Heat transfer enhancement was found in both the critical heat flux and microbubble emission boiling (MEB) regions under these experimental conditions.
Keywords Microbubble emission boiling • Photocatalysis • Proton beam
• Radiation-induced surface activation • Surface wettability
An accelerator-driven system (ADS) is a hybrid-type nuclear system consisting of a proton accelerator, a spallation target, and a subcritical assembly in which highenergy particles and high heat density are generated in the target and subcritical assembly by the spallation and fission reactions. Lead-bismuth is considered the leading candidate for the liquid-metal spallation target for nuclear transmutation [1–3], whereas a solid target such as tungsten or tantalum should be also developed for a water-cooled ADS neutron source [4, 5].
High-energy radiation affects the surface wettability and boiling heat transfer of the solid target. Wettability on a solid surface can be changed by using ultraviolet radiation or γ-rays, and recently the authors have found that the surface wettability can be also changed by proton-beam irradiation . Applying the wettability change resulting from ultraviolet irradiation to titanium dioxide (TiO2), heat transfer research has been carried out to evaluate the wettability effect . In addition, radiation-induced surface activation (RISA) enhances the surface wettability by irradiating a metal oxide layer with γ-rays. Takamasa et al.  have applied RISA to heat-transfer experiments and reported that boiling heat transfer could be enhanced by changing the wettability of the heating surface. However, there has been no research to investigate surface wettability effect on boiling heat transfer at a solid target cooling system, where microbubble emission boiling (MEB)  might occur. MEB can take place when the heat transfer area is small (about 1 cm2) with subcooling conditions. In the target cooling system, the target should be cooled by subcooled water, and the heat-transfer area can be small when the proton beam is focused to a small area. Thus, MEB should be investigated for thermal hydraulic design and safety analysis of the solid target system, and also the effect of wettability on boiling heat transfer should be studied.
The purpose of this study is to investigate wettability change by ultraviolet, γ-ray, and proton beam and to study the wettability effect on subcooled boiling heat transfer with a small heat-transfer area, and finally to obtain knowledge on the heattransfer mechanism of the MEB phenomena.