Measurement Techniques

Four-Sensor Probe

The four-sensor probe [2] used in this study consists of a central front sensor and three peripheral rear sensors (Fig. 11.1a). Tungsten acupuncture needles with a maximum diameter of 0.1 mm were coated with epoxy resin varnish except the tip; the diameter of the tip is less than 1 μm. The insulated needles were inserted into a

Fig. 11.1 Schematics of four-sensor probe (a) and electromagnetic probe (b)

seven-bore insulating tube made of Al2O3. The output signals were acquired at a sampling frequency of 10 kHz and then processed on a PC.

Electromagnetic Probe

The schematic of the electromagnetic probe [3, 4] used in this study is shown in Fig. 11.1b. The probe consists of a SmCo magnet, electrode wires, and a stainless steel jacket. Because a small cylindrical magnet with a diameter of 2 mm was used to miniaturize probe size, the induced potential between the electrodes at the tip of the probe was rather small. Therefore, the detected signal was amplified by a low-noise pre-amplifier and a DC amplifier. The signals digitized by an A/D converter were processed on a PC. The sampling frequency was 10 kHz.

The principle of the electromagnetic probe is based on Faraday's law. When the conducting fluid passes across a magnetic field, potential is induced in a direction normal to the magnetic field and the fluid velocity. Here, the induced potential is proportional to the velocity. In this study, the calibration of the electromagnetic probe was carried out using a rigid rotating setup (Fig. 11.2a) that consists of a cylindrical tank, a rotating system, and a heater. The tank was filled with LBE and rotated at a constant speed. The probe was inserted into the molten LBE rotating rigidly in the tank. The voltage corresponding to the tangential velocity component was measured, and this calibration was performed for all probes used in this study. Typical calibration results are shown in Fig. 11.2b.

Fig. 11.2 Schematic of calibration system (a) and typical calibration results (b)

Experimental Setup

The schematic diagram of the LBE test loop is illustrated in Fig. 11.3. The test loop consists of a test section, a gas injector, an electromagnetic pump, a flow meter, and a drain tank. The test section is a stainless steel pipe with an inner diameter of 50 mm and a length of 2,000 mm. The working fluids are molten LBE and nitrogen gas. The flow rate of LBE was measured by the magnetic flow meter. Nitrogen gas was injected into LBE flow by the gas injector, which consists of 101 stainless steel needle tubes 0.58 mm in inner diameter. The gas flow rate was controlled by a mass flow controller. The operating temperature of this loop was maintained at 200 oC and the heating power was controlled by a temperature controller unit. The flow rate, differential pressure, temperature, and liquid level were monitored by a data acquisition unit connected to a PC. In the experiments, the superficial gas and liquid velocities were varied. Three four-sensor probes or electromagnetic probes were installed at three different axial positions (z/D ¼ 3.2, 17.6, and 32.4) of the test section to investigate the axial development of two-phase flow structure. In addition, these probes were traversed at 12 radial points to obtain the radial profiles.

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