Study on Neutron Spectrum of Pulsed Neutron Reactor
Abstract The neutron spectrum of a pulsed neutron reactor at subcritical state is different from that evaluated by k-eigenvalue mode, because of the time needed in the neutron slowing-down process from fast to thermal energy range. The time needed in slowing down does not depend on the degree of subcriticality, but the decreasing speed of neutron flux becomes fast as the subcriticality becomes deep. Therefore, the neutron spectrum becomes soft as the subcriticality becomes deep. This fact suggests to us that group constants to be used in the design study should change with the degree of subcriticality of the target system, even in the case of the same composition.
Keywords ADSR • Alpha-eigenvalue • k-Eigenvalue mode • Neutron spectrum • Subcriticality • Time-dependent mode
The accelerator-driven subcritical reactor (ADSR) is considered as one of the best candidates to annihilate the radioactivity of nuclear waste and has been investigated in many institutes for many years. The ADSR is operated by the pulsed proton beam as an ignition of spallation reaction to produce many neutrons. Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) is one of the facilities to demonstrate the ADSR by using accelerated protons for the spallation reaction or deuterons for the deuteriumtritium (DT) reaction.
This study focused on the transient behavior of the neutron spectrum in a subcritical system after the injection of DT neutrons to know and discuss the physical behavior of the neutron spectrum in a subcritical system through the analysis of the experiments performed at KUCA. The subcritical system with pulsed neutrons has been widely analyzed in the steady state, although transient behavior of the neutron spectrum after the injection of DT neutrons can be analyzed in the transient state. This chapter focuses on the neutron spectrum evaluated in steady state, and two kinds of calculation modes in steady state are compared and discussed: the k-eigenvalue mode and the alpha-eigenvalue mode.
Chapter 2 shows a brief explanation of KUCA experiments and the major results. Analyses of the experiments and discussion are described in Chap. 3, and the conclusions are summarized in Chap. 4.
Experiment at KUCA and Measured Results
This chapter shows a brief explanation of experiments performed at KUCA for the convenience of easy understanding of the analysis described in the next chapter.
Experiments modeled on the ADSR were performed at the A-core with adjacent D+ accelerator. A typical core configuration is shown in Fig. 13.1 for the case of 13 fuel rods. Each square cell is 2 in. x 2 in. in size, with size in the horizontal direction about 1.5 m, composed of a central 40-cm-thick fuel region and upper and lower polyethylene reflector regions. All control rods are inserted through the experiment. Accelerated D+ ions are hit with tritium target, depicted as T-target in Fig. 13.1, and 14 MeV neutrons produced by D-T reaction at T-target are injected into the core region composed of the fuel rods, polyethylene reflector, etc. Neutrons are injected from outside the core region in this experiment.
The target subcriticality was widely changed by changing the number of fuel rods from 19 to 6 to check the validity of the fiber scintillation counter used in the measurement. The subcriticality of the system was evaluated by the so-called extrapolation area ratio method proposed by Gozani . The counters used in the experiments were set at several positions inside the core, and the measured results summarized in Table 13.1 are the results obtained at the core central area, where the most reliable results are expected. Measured subcriticality is from 2.3 [$] (19 fuel rods case) to 49 [$] (6 fuel rods case).