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Formation of an R&D Implementation and Evaluation Team

The development of a waste inventory database and waste treatment technology and the evaluation of the feasibility of each technology and the total system of waste management requires a team composed of system engineers, researchers,

Table 28.3 Evaluation indexes for combination of waste management technologies

a. Treatment

b. Waste form

c. Storage

–Applicability to various wastes

–Waste classification for transportation and disposal

–Storage method

–Components

–Uniaxial compaction strength

–R&D for commercialization

–Chemical reagent and utilities

–Density

–Storage cost

–Measures to protect against NaCl-induced corrosion

–Vacant volume ratio

–Material and radionuclide balances

–Leaching rate of radionuclides

–R&D for commercialization

–Leaching rate of chemical components

–Treatment cost

–Hydrogen generation rate and measures to manage hydrogen

–Temperature resistance

–Radiation resistance

d. Transportation

e. Disposal

f. Evaluation of total system

–Transportation container

–Disposal method (design, engineered barriers, depth)

–R&D for commercialization

–Transportation cost

–R&D for commercialization

–Treatment, storage, transportation, and disposal cost

–Disposal cost

–Long-term safety of disposal

Fig. 28.2 Research and development (R&D) implementation and evaluation team

and implementers from the start of R&D. The authors propose an R&D implementation and evaluation team (Fig. 28.2). The role of each member is as follows: researchers conduct laboratory-scale cold and hot tests for collecting basic information on waste inventory and treatment technology, implementers carry out engineering-scale cold and hot tests for commercializing the technology, and system engineers carry out the system design and cost evaluation of he technology to evaluate the feasibility of the technology. The members of the team should work together on R&D and to check whether the data obtained are suffi for all members. As a result of this collaboration, it is expected that suffi ent data will be obtained to pursue the next phase of testing and to transfer the technical knowledge smoothly to other members. Because the engineeringscale test will be conducted by the implementers, education and training of future operators will be also performed. The team should also evaluate the storage, transportation, and disposal technology. For this purpose, system engineers who perform these evaluations should be involved.

Requirements for Long-Term Knowledge Management

As already stated, when a nuclear accident occurs there is a much larger volume of wastes and greater variety of waste types than the conventional wastes generated from the usual operation and planned decommissioning of a nuclear power unit. The wastes from a nuclear accident also contain a wider range of concentrations for the various radionuclides. Consequently, it will take a long period to characterize the wastes and to carry out the R&D and evaluation of treatment and disposal technology. It is also expected that the actual treatment and disposal of the wastes will not take place until after more than a few decades. In consideration of this waste management period, long-term knowledge management is needed. The authors propose the formation of an R&D implementation and evaluation team that will manage and retain technical knowledge. The team should involve younger staff members, and education and training of the next generation of staff should be performed by on-the-job training (OJT).

Conclusion

A significant volume of highly contaminated water was generated from the accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Units. Several methods have been applied to decontaminate the radioactivity of the water, and these methods have generated various kinds of sludge and spent adsorbents as secondary wastes. Because long-term waste management is needed, the authors examined a broad range of issues concerning how to manage these wastes in a safe and efficient manner. The requirements for an inventory list and online waste management system; a development strategy for waste treatment, storage, transport, and disposal technology; formation of an R&D implementation and evaluation team; and longterm knowledge management are proposed.

 
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