Globalization, localization and sustainable development

The concept of globalization has developed gradually, giving up on the way to some concepts and proposing others. In the beginning there were talks about economic internationalization, using the direct experience of the formation process of European Union.

The term communization has been "launched" using the contributions of Tonnis Ferdinand (1885-1036) and Max Weber (1865-1920). Tonnis distinguished between community (Gemainshaft) and society (Gesellshaft) - Community is after him, a band of people united by "essential will' (instinctual, natural and original such as family, clan, people), and the society is based on national will; "communalize" or "communalization" (Vergemeinschafftung) and "social." Communization was seen by Weber as a social relation based on a sense of belonging to the same community. "Social" is a social relation based on a rational compromise motivated interests.

More recently, Bell used the term "communal society" ("community society") with a meaning very close to sustainable development. "A postindustrial society (... ) is, in increasing measure, a community society in which the public rather than market mechanisms are those that made the allocation of goods and also public choice, rather than individual request becomes the generator of services." To the extent that "communal society" has to solve ecological problems, capable of promoting the development is maintained through education, research, human rights etc., the concept used by Bell leads to problems of externalities and, hence, of globalization.

From the partial concepts of internationalization of the economy and the prevalence of partial problems affecting national economies, has been passed to the conceptualization contained in the Braundland report regarding the "common future" of humanity. The term "sustainable development" was used in this report as "sustainable development" that could be translated as "development author productive." Broundland report defined this development as one that "to meet needs ("Needs") of the present generation without compromising the needs of future generations." The concept of "knowledge society" was created by Bell in 1973, in fact, in the works prior to 1970. Globalization and complementary location are well-established concepts through the works of European Union.

The downsizing process and SMEs

The concept of "downsizing" has two meanings. In the U.S., it refers to the current trend of establishing especially smaller enterprises (term takes into account firms up to 500 employees). In Europe, the meaning is significantly different: the "division" in units of large enterprises with up to 250 employees. About U. S.'s specific situation talked about Daniel Bell. Large enterprises were characteristic of the American economy. "The size of the American vocabulary is power."[1]

Even in services, large units were present. Bell describes the change that begins to take place in this area. "Change has occurred not only in the fields, but also the nature of work* (...). There is today a new archetype?"[2] The answer seems to be so: "in little more than half century of experience in antitrust, a new economic vision developed. One refers to an important distinction between size and market control on the one hand and, on the other part, understanding that the two are related totally (...). Size certainly is not a good predictor of market control (...) from the 20th century, the percentage of concentration decreased considerably (...). But the most important change was ideological. The idea is that "size" is less relevant to the 'performance.'"[3]

In Europe, SMEs have played and play a leading role in terms of their share) although they were viewed differently. "In the early and mid-20th century -specifically until 1970 - in the most developed economies the proportion of the working owner companies and small businesses has declined rapidly. (...) Small businesses were considered to be of lower species (...). Equilibrium theory and neoclassical economists have paid little attention to the concepts of initiative, independence and striving for new ideas and uncertainties (...). Twentieth century witnessed a massive downsizing and restructuring of many large firms created over a century and decrease of the size appreciation as a virtue and the decline of centralized led economies in Central and Eastern Europe."[4]

Thus, the four major processes revealed by research conducted in the sphere of economy, politics, sociology can explain many new aspects of macroeconomic developments. But there are not also other processes not considered (or undervalued)? We think (and we shall return) that a new global process, perhaps more important than these (which would direct their evolution) refers to the new configuration of global power. Each type of economy in relation to specific resources used, generate or correlate with a specific structure of power.

There have been holding power structures based on access to metals, oil, mechanical etc. technologies. Today it creates a new power structure related to the ability to make and use research-innovation-development.[5] This new factor is correlated with others and even acting strongly on the way they conduct (which should be handled later).

  • [1] Bell, Daniel, op. cit., 270
  • [2] Bell recalls a paper he published in 1936 ("Work and Discontents") that shows that the plant is for the U.S., an "archetype" of institutions, Daniel Bell, "The Coming of Post-Industrial Society," 160
  • [3] Ibid, 270
  • [4] Wennekers, Sander, Lorraine M. Uhlaner, Roy Thunikand (2002), "Entrepreneurship and Its Conditions: a Macro Perspective," International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, no. I,
  • [5] Hoffmann, Oscar, Ion Glodeanu (2006), Knowledge - New Power Resource. Bucharest: Antet
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