New problems for political economics

Incidence of the sustainable development with globalization

As we have seen in previous topics, macroeconomics involves a constructivist perspective through which to be "cut out" from the whole complex of reality (and beyond) a series of processes, factors, context, constraints and freedoms that are in a socio-economics framework of action for social actors (whom we consider to define the microeconomics level). It is therefore natural that the changes in terms of external contexts of a national economy to influence (in various ways and effects) the structuring (macroeconomics) of the national economy. What makes difficult the theoretical approach for elucidation of issues concerns to the powerful combination of processes that we want to describe. Science is a human construction that seeks to make sense (meaning) of our world concepts, theories are true "inventions." Terms that call "areas" of the world should not be interpreted as "reflections" (based on the criterion of accuracy) of phenomena that exist independently as such.

To get used to this way of thinking, it might be possible to find other concepts that would be more "touched" more useful. May be the way I "cut-off" the world on several processes is not the best, is preferable to another name. Fact is that, for example, global development issues and sustainable development have emerged, largely, not only together but also generated by the same reality. Therefore, only from the methodological needs we treat all these processes one after another (as much as possible). In some analyzes, globalization issues have arisen (or at least have been triggered in part) by the processes of world pollution. Air and water circulation make the polluting things to expand from a place to the whole world. Deforestation in a region changes the climate in other parts of the world. Consumption of natural resources by the industrialized economy of a country affects the ability to access the same resources from less developed countries. On this "channel" effects of globalization the development have expanded and economic activities were "infiltrated" and economic and political powers.

Processes of globalization and globalization that arises (usually negative) to the development, took place "step by step" by mutual action alternative. "Causes, effects and solutions to environmental problems can occur at different geographical levels: local, national and global (...). Since discussions on about, effects and solutions to environmental problems are related to the issue of liability and the division of costs, the definition of environmental issues as international or global environmental problems should be interpreted as a result of political struggle and conceptual rather than a direct consequence "of their ecological character."

Globalization, of course, takes place on the basis of processes, mechanisms, factors, but - what is important - for the most part, the two processes have the same actors. What generates the differentiations is based on "reference framework" through which we perceive "environmental approach" to the socio-political. "EU study assumes that people perceive and interpret reality based on a specific vision of a specific cultural reference framework."[1]

The crisis of the managerial Taylorist-Fordist system

There is a common socio-economic "fact" that acted upon the two processes namely the Taylorist-Fordist crisis system of production and consumption, or, as it was conceptualized "end of the Great Pyramid." The Crisis of Fordist-Taylorist work system372 has many causes, which explains, in part, its link with the new global processes.

Based on the work performance of low-skilled workers as a result of a great division of labor operations, the system has as paradigm the standardized production, and massificate, generating big series products made without change, competition is fought by lowering price cost and increase productivity through technological change. Called technocentric management (based on the promotion of technological change and human replacement with machines) especially by human addiction to the belt (innovation introduced by M. Ford), Taylorist management involved a consumer with a low purchasing power and minor quality requirements, a worker (in fact, the same consumer regarded as under-trained employee with work requirements as low).

The Taylorism crisis is triggered in late 1960 due to changes in the cultural -economic situation in developed countries among which we mention: the raising of living standards and the emergence of people with higher demands for work and life; deepening of the ecological crisis, natural resource depletion, massive pollution generated by a technology used for the sole purpose of gain; change of the cultural model for consumption by establishing consumer requirements and demands under a large range of values; increased power and global influence of new states constantly expanding their scope on new areas of the globe; development of information technology and expanding telework, delocalization (the difference between the present work in a country and economy for which we work in another country).

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