Theme XI. Macroeconomy in Networks and Changing the Context of Competition

What are cognitive transfer networks? Delocalized competition

The confluence of globalization and the transition to a society driven by knowledge (and the "downsizing" - the proliferation of SMEs) generate a structural change of competitiveness factors. On global markets, competition, and very often with growing extent, not also wears a priority within national economies, and between macroeconomics and their integrated social actors. To the increasing extent, the competition goes global, acts in cooperation and relocates. This process changes radically the principles of law to economic development. While the occurrence of national economies was created a correlation between the success of global businesses and the contribution made by them to the national economy.

This reality - of prime importance - tends to lose relevance. "The idea that citizens of a nation's economy share the same fate was increasingly accepted in first decades of the nineteenth century."[1] With the advent of large corporations, it is undertaking a vigorous centralization process of industry and other industries. Thus it emerges and consolidates a number of networks (companies in cooperation or even dependent) or "parts" of the same company such as rail network, telephone network, transmission network, network, etc. Great "clusters" of firms led to their market power to stimulate consumption and contribute to national economic growth.

Heterogeneous networks

America was the country at the forefront of these processes, so it was the following situation: "Central companies have come to be identified by the Americans, and not only them, the U.S. economy as a whole. They were leading promoters of the economy national, and their successes were its successes. They were the American economy."[2] We are living in an era in which the "elements" components of the microeconomy are disconnected from macroeconomics country. Some companies are owned by investors from other countries, others sell their products in other countries. Moreover, a large number of high professional worth working for employers in other countries, not to help the country's economic boom in living. "Many conceptual analysts (...) do not feel in any way indebted to the economic fate of other Americans, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, they feel powerless and overwhelmed before the major problems facing the rest of the world."[3] In our time, the networks change their nature, rather homogeneous networks consisting of units of the same "kind," performing operations with the same functionality (electrical networks are composed of homogeneous units running issues related division of labor) appear heterogeneous networks of cooperation.

The term "network" has spread to different relations from homogeneous networks and it can be established between scientists of different specializations. This yields a number of praxiological networks or social science networks. These networks are, in fact, a number of links permanent and ordered to facilitate access to resources and to achieve results and exchange views while "actors make connections to access the resources of others."[4]

What do heterogeneous networks of cooperation include?

The "translation"[5] means negotiating relationships that are established between the authors comprising the network. The system of cooperation networks or "actor -network," "socio-technical" networks has a more recent origin. The heterogeneous character of networks is given by some features related to:

a) networks join together actors with very diverse activities, not only from various scientific disciplines, but also in technology, education, finance, production, trade, marketing, etc. which involves an exceeding of fragmentizing knowledge and a return to practical consistent vision;

b) the networks join together, in the relations of cooperation, different institutions: universities, research centers, banks, factories, trade companies, laboratories etc.

c) networks are comprising both human elements (specialists) and materials (technology, laboratory substance, material, buildings, etc.);

Networks "are thus sets of identity - which some may, in extreme, be characterized as human or non-human - linked by translation* during which define mutually call them" actors - networks "or" social networks - technical." The praxeology subject, science and technology, become therefore, the analysis of these networks and their transformations, be it the production and dissemination of scientific statement or technology."[6] To act as an "actor," the networks are designed and constructed according to certain rules and functions according to certain rules (official-certified or negotiated). "Actor-network" intervenes in economy, changing, largely configuration and economic mechanisms.

Just this aspect we want to discuss in this theme. I saw that a major shortcoming of economic structure (and, in general, modern society) is fragmentizing of actors that give reality to what is called "the economic life of society." Fragmentation does not refer to differentiate actors as such, actually normal and beneficial to an economy based on a modern division of labor.

Social division of labor involves two related issues:

a) differentiation by type of work undertaken by different social actors;

b) cooperating of actors throughout the economy.

The first follows from the requirements of complex labor specialization. The company is able to perform tasks as diverse and provided special training or a particular skill, the more the actors specialized differentiation is more productive. The differentiation of social stock of work is able to be made at a time on different players in order to make work more productive. The division of labor becomes necessary especially when it comes to different occupations. So what happened by making great social division of labor: farmers split from the shepherds, then the appearance of craftsmen, division of labor in the production of material goods is followed by a division of labor to produce cognitive goods, scientific research (in levels and areas), technological research, innovation, training, etc. people.

Specialization is necessary and beneficial, but it should complement his cooperation. Fragmentizing refers just to cooperation. Specialization - in the context of capitalist economy requires - primarily - market cooperation by means of goods exchange between autonomous actors and free in their decisions. The market intervention as a mediator of relations between specialized actors and trade of their products has many positive values, and limits. We know that markets function by highlighting some flaws and limitations.

  • [1] Reich, Robert B. (1996), Nations Work. Bucharest: Paideia, 28
  • [2] Ibid. 46.
  • [3] Ibid. p.270.
  • [4] Vinck D. (1992), Du laboratoire aux reseaux. Le travail scientifique en mutation. Commission des Communautés Européenns, Luxemburg, 89.
  • [5] Callon, Michel (1970), "L'operation du traduction comme relation simbolique." Incidences des rapportes socieus sur le développment et des techniques. Paris: Corder.
  • [6] Vinck D., op. cit. (*-through "translation" are to be considered negotiations)
 
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