Solving problems in network economy
Solving problems has a strong political character, which obliged the EU to consider and develop some methodological materials, with character of proposals and suitable lessons to be taken. Globalization requires some specific considerations. "Issues related to globalization are of great importance, first the scale to which it relates. Secondly, they are impressive due to the systemic interdependence of variables. Scale of problems of globalization indicates the need to develop a consolidated chain generating wealth (resources), whereas interdependence indicates the need to elucidate the circumstances that lead us to the essence of the problem to be solved." Global networks of cooperation (in general) have a rather complex structure variable.
What is important is the requirement to define as accurately the problem, before trying to solve it. As K. Popper showed, a problem "well formulated" directs us to the way of fertile research. The problem of global networks is a class of problems that becomes a concern for humanity as a whole, while having major features.
We can say that the nature of global problems involves a complementary approach in two directions: to think globally - act locally; to think locally - act globally. In order to define what problems generate the global networks it is required to correctly understand what a problem is. The problem is a creation of social groups participating in processes of societal development, a requirement of dissatisfaction resulting real exchange rate of events in relation to desirable trends of a strategy undertaken.
For example, a problem we face when we analyze the development of globalization is the dissatisfaction caused by how we relate to this process. "Analysis of how we deal with emerging issues of globalization confirms that the road to globalization raises not only seeking new solutions to difficult problems, but also reduces our confidence to approach problem solving used because: 1) growing inability to act on the deficit of the governing act* - in a world ranging from global and multipolarity mixing, 2) the difficulty to achieve a satisfactory compromise between trust in greater efficiency and greater equity, 3) the need for autonomy increasing generic potentials of science and technology, that however, should result in increased complement in the local technological change plan."
These problems set out by the EU result from the vision that the Union has developed a how globalization should be conducted to gratify our requirements. The problems therefore require first, an awareness of a decoupling between what it is actually happening and what I want to be a dissatisfaction and concern for a possible confrontation with a reality that would be carriers of threats.
Second, social issues involve a correct methodology to approach reality. To the reductionist analysis of reducing complex issues to a simple sum of linearly correlated, nonlinear approach "project" ("design approach") - as a compromise between the "holistic" view cognitive and "reductionist" in search of solutions - states "to define the roles of different actors to replace the diffuse causality with complexity and interdependence. The process can be considered as a chain of processes with feedback ("the chain of loops") centered on each actor."
In the case of global networks of heterogeneous cooperation, the problem solving requires: to see the "network" as a chain of feedback processes generated by each actor; to study the chain of actions as a complex reality, nonlinear (scheme 2);
Scheme 2 Typical model - global network
to study the great competitive advantage resulting from the synergy of relations between network actors and focus attention to increase this advantage that cannot be made by individual actors; to study the two types of "rings," "feedback." ("loops") in solving problems.
A "ring" ("loop") is due to "fuzzy character" ("fuzziness") in the internal differentiation of system between internal and external subsystem with the environment.
The second type of ring is its complexity of solving the problem: "networks" have the competitive advantages of each "ring" customized by a specific actor; searching for "decoupling" between desirable model and the actual model and formulate problems; hierarchy of problems in their importance and our ability to solve them; seeking solutions related to all models (nonlinear models).
As shown, creation of networks involves networking and requires an action on different plans and meanings, in accordance with certain principles: cooperation between equals; action "top and down"; positive-sum competition; systemic innovation; public-private partnership.
-  (1994), "Globalization from Challenge Perception to Science and Technology Policy," FOP 324, Commission of the European Communities, Brussels, 3.
-  Levitt, Theodor, Une seul Univers; le marché' (1983), L'Euroconsommateur dans l'archipel planétaire, FOP 275, Commission of the European Communities, 1991.
-  *** Globalization from Challenge Perception to Science and Technology Policy, 4. (*-highlight in text)
-  Ibid., 35.