Health Psychology: The Basics

The development of health psychologyIntroductionHistorical approaches to health: a biomedical model of health and illnessIntroduction to the biomedical modelChallenging the biomedical view of healthWhat is health?What is health psychology?Why do we need health psychology?Health in the twenty-first century: the role of lifestyle on population healthHealth policy: the role of government action for lifestyle changeHealth psychology today, where are we now?Research methods in health psychologyQualitative studiesQuantitative studiesSystematic reviews and meta-analysisCareers in health psychology: What do health psychologists do and where do they work?A day in the life of a health psychologist Dr Sabrina RobinsonHow to become a health psychologistStage oneStage twoWhat can you expect to earn as a health psychologist?Interested in health psychology, now what?Final overview and summaryReferencesA bio/psycho/social approach to health and wellbeingoverviewA biopsychosocial approach to health and wellbeingThe biopsychosocial approachPainBiological factorsTransductionTransmissionModulationPsychological factorsThe Gate Control Theory (GCT)AnxietyLearningCognitionTreatment for painWhy does pain relief stop working as well?What can health psychologists do to improve pain?What about alternative therapies?Brief summary of painDiabetesWhat is diabetes?The endocrine systemIt is a disease of lifestyle!What is the role of the health psychologist in understanding Type 2 diabetes?Using a biopsychosocial approach in understanding the aetiology of Type 2 DMExamples of biological factorsExamples of psychological factorsEvidenceWhy might wholegrains be beneficial?Is it just about eating wholegrains?What about exercise?Can personality influence onset?What is conscientiousness?What is the relationship between conscientiousness and Type 2 diabetes?Social and environmental factorsThe obesogenic environmentWhat about culture?The digestive system and obesityThe digestive systemSo why do we need to eat?So what is the right amount of food?What is a calorie?ObesitySo why do people become obese?Biological factorsSo what other biological factors affect eating behaviour?LeptinGhrelinNeuropetide YPsychological factorsConditioningStress and eating behaviourActivitySocial factorsSummaryAutoimmune diseasesThe immune systemSimplified overview of the innate systemSimplified overview of the specific systemGenesGenderPsychological factorsSocial factorsSo what can we conclude?summaryReferencesAttitudes, beliefs and behaviour: Models of health behaviour changeIntroductionIntroduction to social cognition modelsSocial Cognitive TheoryWe do what we see: the historical development of the Social Cognitive TheoryOverview of the Social Cognitive TheoryCore process 1: outcome expectanciesSelf-efficacy ‘the belief that we are capable’Core process 2: socio-structural factorsCore process 3: goal settingSummary and future directionsHealth Belief ModelProtection Motivation TheoryTheory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned BehaviourThe development of the theory of planned behaviourSummary and future directionsStage models of changeStages of change ‘When you change’Summary and future directionsFinal overview and summaryReferencesHealth behaviours of children and adolescentsIntroductionChildren’s health in contextWhy is childhood so important for future health?Methods of research in children and adolescentsWhy is eating behaviour in children important?Understanding eating behaviourBiological factorsPsychosocial factorsEarly years and the role of learningA focus on interventionsSo with this in mind what can be done to tackle obesity on a wider scale?A biopsychosocial approach to understanding risk behaviourBiologicalPsychosocial factorsWhy are friends so important?The influence of parents/carersIntervening in risky behavioursAlcohol use in adolescentsWhat is the problem?What influences alcohol use in adolescence?Biological factorsInfluence of othersPositive expectanciesParental influenceAffect and personality factorsChoosing theory appropriate to the needs of the target groupThe need for a dual processing approach in predicting adolescent behaviourWhat is the dual processing approach?How do children and adolescents differ from adults?The Prototype Willingness ModelSummary of chapterReferencesStressoverviewIntroductionWhat is stress?Models of stressFight or flightWhat happens in the body during the fight or flight response?Biological Model of Stress – Seyle’s General Adaption SyndromeTransactional Theory of StressIs it stress?Is there a link between stress and health?The role of daily hasslesAllostatic loadHow might stress be linked to ill health?The potential direct route between stress and illnessStress reactivityPsychoneuroimmunology/ psychoneuroendocrinologyThe brief overview of the immune systemThe potential pathways between stress and the immune systemWhat moderates the relationship between stress and illness?CopingWhy are some people more resilient to stress than others?Social supportHow do we measure stress?Stress managementBiofeedbackEmotional expression relaxation, guided imagery and musicMindfulnessExercisesummaryReferencesAdjusting to chronic illnessoverviewIntroductionWhat are chronic illnesses?The consequences of living with a chronic illnessCoping requires major lifestyle changesImpact of chronic illness on familyQuality of lifeMindfulness and gratitudeSocial supportSelf-managementEducation based interventions or psychological interventions?Cardiac rehabilitationDiabetes self-managementCarbtoxicity and low carbohydrate diets in type 2So what has happened since?What are the implications?What about exercise?Irritable bowel syndromeInterventionsMindfulnessSummary of the chapterReferencesHealth psychology in healthcare settingsIntroductionCommunication in healthcare settingsWhat is the doctor-patient relationship?What is the impact of a good doctor-patient relationship?The medical consultationFactors that influence the medical consultationHealthcare professional related factorsPatient related factorsPatient and healthcare professional factorsSituational factorsWhat makes a good or bad medical consultation?Shared decision makingSummaryConcordance, adherence and complianceWhat is adherence?What psychological factors predict adherence?The Perceptions and Practicalities Approach (PAPA)Improving adherence: considerations and future directionsImpact of hospitalisation and stressful proceduresWhat is a hospital?The patients’ roleThe good versus bad patientFactors affecting adjustment to hospitalChildren in hospitalHow can we better support patients including children in hospital settings?SummaryFinal overview and summaryReferencesGlossary
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