Constructivist view on strategies

As shown (Theme III), there are different perspectives ("views") on the macro-economy (usually the macrosociety). The substantialism ("objective" vision, "modern") studies the macroeconomic strategies as they are, as practice, taking them as "societal realities." This view is correct as far as we do not absolute it, not consider it justified to be the only way of analysis. As such, complementary to this "synchronized" view, it is to consider a processual "diachronic" analysis. That being so, the strategies appear to us as human constructions, works (in some cases can be considered, even innovations) of people (as individuals, organizations, governance structures, such as transnational establishment such as the European Union) that decide freely in a space of possibility and accessibility act.

Human decisions are taken in the context of constraints and limitations that on the one hand, define an impossible (affordable and act) and, on the other hand, a "space" of opportunities, behavioral freedoms. In this "space" (metaphorically speaking), people can take different decisions, moreover, of ignorance, inefficiency (sometimes in bad faith) can produce erroneous strategy, in that they contradict a number of constraints and limitations, violating restrictions impossible act or accessible (Scheme 1).

Scheme 1 The strategic action model

Constraints and limitations

Space of freedom of action

Constraints of nature I

Knowledge inventive and innovative actions

objective processes | Limitations

Technological constraints II

Useful means of action Undesirable

Technological Technologically necessary impossible

Social requirements - UE, III

Objectives | Restrictions

Moral constraints IV

Integration objectives in UE

Obligations | Interdictions

Norms permission | Undesirable

National strategies

I. Constraints of nature concerning the processes (laws) objectives, which involves, both a series of necessary determinations that we cannot break, and some limits (natural wealth, processes that could provide resources such as tidal, energy wind, etc.). Knowledge of natural processes underlying design technology, the means to use what nature requires (plane uses gravity and other natural processes).

II. Technological constraints on the means of action that generates the space of application of knowledge in inventions domain, technological improvements and are subject to ontological constraints. Creating technologies (of material order)[1] means respecting what is necessary in the conduct of processes and exclusion of what is proving to be impossible (a "perpetual mobile") and creativity in the "usefulness."

III. Social constraints (e.g. those arising from EU's decisions our country must comply) arising out of "alignment" with the EU (Lisbon Strategy 2000) and the restrictions imposed (e.g. ecological). Freedom takes place in space our development objectives "accession period."

IV. Moral constraints (religious) moral and religious rules under which there is established a number of obligations and prohibitions and emerging "space" free permits (alternative).[2] In the national strategies development it starts from specifying the impossible and "create" in the space of freedom. It requires taking into account that these boundaries are quite historical, changing as they develop knowledge, create new technologies, adapt to new decisions (EU, UN, etc.), we emphasize moral constraints.

The impossible macroeconomic strategy is complex, historical, consisting of:

1. Impossible objective generated by laws, characteristics, processes of nature will not depend on our knowledge. Their violation by poorly developed strategies leads ultimately to disturbance and even macroeconomic crises, such as ecological crises, failures of economic policies that violate the limits imposed by certain resources (oil prices due to excessive consumption and alternative measures insufficient, etc.). As he knows more than these constraints, he can use them (in its technologies) not to violate them.

2. Impossible "social" generated by constraints created by people (moral, religious, decision making, technological, legal, etc.). Creating a functioning market, is part of the competitive constraints and, in turn, generates new constraints: limited resources, common behaviors of different populations, stimulating capacity of the business (trust) that a legitimate and sustainable inspire businesses).

Possible action - the result of the delimitation of the complex action of constraints mentioned - becomes in all virtual, imagined, conceived, even invented directions, the action of a strategy involving specific objectives to achieve goals-value (socio-human purpose that will lead to the objectives), ways and means by which resources can be used by appropriate means to achieve the goals. The leaders (countries, companies) act within possible actions by expanding and reducing the area of impossible.

Possible accessible is a "part" of possible action in relation to resources, actions, environment was available. If, for example, a country has no oil resources, a number of courses of action and its objectives are more difficult to reach. The more "space" possible access covers more than one of the possible action, the closer he is privileged group of candidates to freedom. The major role of competitive strategy is to exploit the best possible access existing actions to increase its sphere of "penetration" in possible act and even to extend possible accessible, attacking leader (challenge) or struggling to defend leadership. The strategies of "niches" are those that occupy a limited area of possible access that fully exploits. The "aggressive" strategies are those that create new insight (inventions and innovations) in the impossible zone, producing new areas of possible action or accessible.

At the microeconomic level, macrostrategies are designed to generate the main features of the context (as a strategic construction achieved by selecting those elements of the environment to be taken into account by the economic policies (see section on context).

  • [1] Social technologies can be based on the use of fake material.
  • [2] True freedom involves alternative permissions that man may choose according to his own consciousness and will (feel free to go or not to vote). There are false freedom (constrained), such as the obligation to pay tax involves the possibility of pay
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