The United States in the 1990s was going through a period of maturity after learning from Japanese-style management, while simultaneously blending management theory with information technology. A number of management theories blending Japanese-style management of the 1980s with U.S. styles flourished, such as business process re-engineering (BPR), downsizing, restructuring, outsourcing, core competency, SCM/CRM, organisational learning/learning organisation, change management and visionary companies. Management theory saw a paradigm shift during this period. From the 1990s to the 2000s, the same tendency has continued.

Among the features of the 1990s’ management theories were ‘globalisation’ and ‘acceleration’ in the context of ‘integrated computerisation’ and information systems. Such management theories were introduced even in library management and they wielded a strong influence.

Furthermore, in libraries, SERVQUAL, which was used to a great extent in profit-making businesses, was considered and adopted in practice at the beginning of the 1990s. In the latter half of the 1990s, LibQUAL+ was invented as a SERVQUAL optimised for libraries, and a library management theory refreshingly original and customised for libraries was proposed.

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