In the previous chapter, organisational learning/learning organisation linked with core competency was implemented by librarians with relatively no resistance, and showed improved/successful results. This implies that librarians prefer to utilise their competencies for their users, and also to learn skills and develop their specialities in changing environments. However, even if these theories are effective to some extent in library organisations, there is still room for improvement. These business management theories were not originally created for library organisations, and did not consider the philosophy, services, organisational structure and specialities of libraries, so there is still some incompatibility. Librarians need to develop their own specialities and services for a unique and suitable theory of library management.

If one were to disregard the business management theories that make up the bulk of library management, often only philosophical ideas are left, such as intellectual freedom (ALA, 2008) and the Five Laws of Library Science (Ranganathan, 1931) and considerations about the purposes of libraries, e.g., ‘[t]he public library is the fortress of democracy and [the] strength of its foundations measures the strength of democratic institutions generally’ (Fair, Dollard, Scudder, & Carolyn, 1945), or ‘[t]he Library as the Heart of the University’ (Leupp, 1924). Although it is important for library management to initially state the ideals and principles of libraries, more concrete and practical theories are needed. Those who realised this need introduced business management theories that had been designed for commercial organisations to fill the gap.

Therefore, it is necessary to develop a management theory suitable for library management from actual library cases, especially cases based on core competencies and organisational structures that were utilised readily. This chapter onwards significantly focuses on library organisations, functions and services in order to reveal strategies inherent to libraries.

By using in-depth case analysis of library management, this chapter will analyse the constant development and transitions of library organisational structures, from which unique strategies can be gleaned.

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