Dependence on resources

A potentially complementary approach offers the theory of "resource dependency"[1] according to which the macroeconomic environment is a factor of strong constraint through its capacity of controlling the resources of each organization. The macro-economic environment is not a free market at the discretion of organizations from which they choose according to the needs and preferences the usable resources. Instead, these resources are controlled (or even owned) of some organizations, which they "offer" in relation to their interests. A special case is represented by the human resources. In a capitalist society (democratic) human resources are generally free, people offering their services in relation to their choices (while materials and energy resources are usually owned by companies).

In reality, things get a number of "hidden" issues. As the capitalist economies develop and rely on qualified professionals trained by higher education and university, the human resources institutions are controlled and controllable "producing" human capital and intellectual capital ("intangible assets"). Universities, research institutes, "transfer operators,"[2] banks of skills, industrial sites and scientific and technological etc. start to become "power operators."

Thus, in the present conditions of transition to economies driven by knowledge, companies need specialists trained in "segments" very good defined the knowledge that universities are preparing to a lesser extent (through master, doctorate, postgraduate courses, etc.). In this case, "transfer operators" take university graduates and further prepare them against the actual requirements, in particular of companies. There appeared laboratories, incubators, firms' spin off[3] 'and' start-up "companies," "business angels" (that provide venture capital for research), firms providing "seed capital" (capital required to create a company to exploit an invention), etc. All these organizations are starting to control human resources and they can directly and strongly influence the fate of non-type organizations (intensive-cognitive) and based on "intangible assets." Theories covering problems "using employment" (Keynes) are directly related to this reality, resource dependency. It is currently developing new theories that substantiate actions of constructivist type in light of which the manager (the great leader) has the ability to change the macroeconomic environment by developing successful new practices ("The best practices"). The leading companies invent new principles of design and realization of human resources, that they develop independently, escaping thus from the dependence toward companies that control this resource.

Transactional model unites market economy with organization theory in an economic-organizational form.[4] In light of this theory, organizations seek to become independent (if possible) to market resources that assimilation of functions performed by firms that may make them dependent on them. To this purpose, companies practice different methods: strategic alliances, fusions, start-ups to take actions necessary and which, before, were controlled by other companies, etc. The most effective way to practice this orientation (to get rid of dependence on other firms) is given by achieving networks of heterogeneous cooperation (theme XII).

The transactional model brings elements of value - spiritual of the human resources to the center of macroeconomic problems. If other theories presented above, put a priority requirements related to behavior management, human resources management is dependent on the success of the organization reporting the macro-economic context, constructivist theories giving special attention to designing human resources and their behavior towards macroeconomic environment.

By how to design human nature, the type of capabilities that will focus their construction and privileged relations with some intermediate institutions - transfer (especially universities and research centers, enterprises and is seeking autonomy, more a leader on labor markets.

Heterogeneous transfer networks are better designed to serve this objective. But for them to work under the project, the essential element is the good relations of cooperation between different professional groups are in different "links" of the network. In this framework, human resources should focus their design on a new value.

Trust, the central value of the new economy

So it is elaborated the concept of "social capital" defined as a "set of informal values and norms, shared by members of a group that allows cooperation between them."[5] Hannifan Judston Lyde introduced the concept of "social capital"[6] has received endorsement by Colleman James and Robert Putnam. The networks put at their base just these common values and norms shared. "A network is a group of individual agents who share informal norms and values other than those necessary for ordinary transactions market."[7] At the "center" of the value system of social capital is the value of confidence. This "social capital is the capability that arises from the prevalence of trust in a company or in some other form of it."[8]

We could define trust as representing the attitudinal significance of the relations between individuals or groups based on sharing mutual awareness the same criteria for action, legitimacy and societal benefit from constant faith of their application to practice daily for common advantage. For trust to be the central-value in relations, at microeconomic level, between people it requires that the same value to become the element defining at the macroeconomic level. It is through this fact to build a sustainable business environment.

We have shown that a favorable environment, business efficient is one that provides a reliable and easily discernible legitimate sustainable to all social actors involved in the development of market processes. From this perspective human resources management is intended to provide a 'bridge' connecting the way it is designed and functions at the macro level and processes to train staff to achieve a social purpose enterprises, at micro level.

  • [1] Jeffrey Pfeffer, and Gerald R. Salancik (1978), The External Control of Organizations: A Resource Dependence Perspective. New York, Harper and Row.
  • [2] The concept of "transfer operators" means those organizations that mediate the transition process-innovation knowledge transfer from one pole to another by ensuring transferability product - knowledge from one phase to another
  • [3] Spin-off companies take an idea developed by a specialized institution (university, research institute, etc.) and operates as a business. Companies "startup" are starting a business, "banks of competence" recruit, prepare, offer specialist firms (time limited or permanent employment) etc.
  • [4] Williamson Oliver, Economic Organization, Weatsheof Book, 1986, (see D. S. Pugh, D. J. Hickson, management organizations, Bucharest, CODECS, 1994, 78-81.
  • [5] Fukuyama, Francis (1999), The Great Disruption, Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order, New York: The Free Press, 16.
  • [6] Hanifan, Lynda J. (1916), "The Rural School Community," Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, no. 67, 30-138. The term has been used after, by Glenn Lowry and Ivan Light (1972), Coleman James, "Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital," American Journal of Sociology, 1988 (supplement), 95-120; Putnam, Robert (1995), "Bowling Alone. America Declining Social Capital," Journal of Democracy, 6, 65-78.
  • [7] Fukuyama, Francis, op. cit., 196.
  • [8] Fukuyama, Francis (1993), Trust: The Social Virtues and The Creation of Prosperity. New York: The Free Press, 10.
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