Non-finite verb

The non-finite verb (NFV) usually occurs together with a finite verb (12.7.2). Non-finite forms include the infinitive, supine, present participle and past participle.

De kan springa fort.

Vi har sprungit heia vägen.

De kom springande.

Hunden är bortsprungen nu.

They can run fast.

We have run the whole way.

They came running.

The dog has run off now.

Main clause positions (sentence elements)

Clausal adverbial

1 The clausal adverbial (CA) modifies the sense of the clause as a whole. It is often a simple adverb.

FV

CA

etc.

Vi âker

inte

till Sverige pa sommaren. = not

alltid

= always

aidrig

= never

ofta

= often

sallan

= seldom

faktiskt

= actually

= of course

In main clauses clausal adverbials come after the finite verb (or after the subject in inverted word order). In subordinate clauses they precede the finite verb. Compare this to the word order in the English main and subordinate clause.

Vi àker inte till Sverige pà sommaren.

We do not go to Sweden in the summer.

Vi sa att vi aidrig àker till Sverige pà sommaren.

We said that we never go to Sweden in the summer.

2 Other clausal adverbials include:

antagligen, presumably; bara, only; egentligen, really; givetvis, of course; garna, willingly; kanske, perhaps; knapp(as)t, scarcely;

mojligen, possibly; naturligtvis, naturally; sàkert, surely; vanligtvis, usually; àtminstone, at least; aven, also

  • 3 Notice the relative order when there are several clausal adverbials:
    • (a) short modal adverbs: ju, nog, val, da
    • (b) short pronominal and conjunctional adverbs: alltsa, darfor, anda
    • (c) longer modal adverbs: verkligen, egentligen, faktiskt
    • (d) negations: inte, aidrig

De har ju (a) darfor (b) faktiskt (c) aidrig (d) rest utomlands.

They have, you understand, therefore actually never been abroad.

Other adverbials

Other adverbials (OA) comprise expressions of manner, place, time, cause, condition, etc. For this reason, they are sometimes called MPT-adverbials and often consist of a preposition + noun construction or of a subordinate clause.

OA-manner

Vi kommer med tag.

OA-place

Vi kommer till Stockholm.

OA-time

Vi kommer pâ torsdag.

OA-condition

Vi kommer om vi har tid.

OA-time

Vi kommer när vi Hr lediga.

We’re coming by train.

We’re coming to Stockholm.

We’re coming on Thursday.

We’ll come if we have time.

We’ll come when we are free.

Notice that, when there are several OAs in the same sentence, the relative order of OAs is usually (but not always):

Vi kommer med tag (Manner) till Stockholm (Place) pa torsdag (Time) om vi har tid (Condition).

We’re coming by train to Stockholm on Thursday if we have time.

If the adverbial of manner is long, however, the order may be Place, Time, Manner.

Han aker utomlands varje ar med hela familjen och tva hundar.

He travels abroad every year with the entire family and two dogs.

Some simple adverbs are also OAs.

Main clause positions (sentence elements)

Vi kom dit/hem/ut/bort.

We got there/home/out/away.

OAs usually come at the end of sentences but often begin main clauses. See 12.8.1.

Objects and complements

Transitive verbs (7.12.1) take a direct object: Nils äter kakan.

Intransitive verbs (7.12.1) take no object: Nils sover.

The direct object (DO) - which goes in the object (O) position - may be:

a noun phrase

a pronoun

a subordinate clause

Nàgon stal hans bil. Anna kysste honom Jag vet att han dr ddr.

Someone stole his car.

Anna kissed him.

I know that he is there.

Ditransitive verbs (7.12.1) possess both a direct and an indirect object. The indirect object (IO) is usually a person for whose sake an action is undertaken.

Jag gav Studenten min bok.

IO DO

I gave the Student my book.

Jag gav min bok till Studenten.

DO IO

I gave my book to the Student.

Note: The order of the objects is usually as in English:

• a prepositionless object precedes an object with a preposition:

Han lânade

He lent

boken

- prep the book

till Nils.

+ prep

to Nils.

if neither object has a preposition, the indirect object precedes the direct object:

Han lânade

He lent

Nils

IO

Nils

boken.

DO the book.

The predicative complement (C) occupies the same position as the object (O), following the object if there is one. It is found in sentences with copular verbs such as: vara, bli, heta, kallas, verka, tyckas, se ... ut, utse ... till, gora ... till. The complement agrees with the subject or object.

Subject complements

Moa och Emil âr tonàringar. De blir säkert rika.

Moa and Emil are teenagers. They are sure to become rich.

Object complements

Det gjorde honom besviken.

It made him disappointed. They called Sture‘Stumpen’.

De kallade Sture för Stumpen

Verb particle

See 7.15, Compound verbs. The verb particle (Part) occupies a position between the non-finite verb and the object/complement.

1

T

2

FV

3

S

4 CA

5

NFV

5a Part

6 7

O/C OA

Agarna

kommer

nog

att

ner

fabriken.

lägga

Har

du

redan

stängt

av

datorn?

Min bror

ringde

-

-

-

upp

mig i gâr.

Translations:The owners will probably close down the factory. Have you already switched

the computer off? My brother phoned me up yesterday.

Passive agent

For passive see 7.13, 12.8.6. The passive agent (Agent) occupies a position between the object/complement and the Other adverbial.

1

T

2

FV

3

S

4 CA

5

NFV

6 O/C

6a Agent

7 OA

Han

blev

-

inte

omkörd

-

av bussen.

Han

beviljades

-

-

-

avsked

av styrelsen

igâr.

Translations: He was not overtaken by the bus. He was allowed to resign by the

board yesterday.

Main clause structure – extended positional scheme with examples

1

2

3

4

5

5a

6

6a

7

X1

T

FV

(S)

CA

NFV

Part

o/c

Agent

OA

X2

1

Han

hade

-

inte

packat

-

váskan

-

i gar.

2

1 gar

hade

han

inte

packat

-

váskan.

3

Vi

ger

-

-

-

-

Olle gávan

-

i kváll.

4

Sedan

blev

de

tyvárr

-

-

arga.

5

Det

har

-

redan

kommit

-

tvá poliser.

6

och

det

ár

ju

-

-

roligt

-

-

att spela tennis.

7

Sten

brukade

-

kyssa

-

OSS,

-

-

Maja och mig.

8

Men

Nils,

han

ár

-

inte

-

-

dum,

-

-

han.

X1

1

T

2

FV

  • 3 4
  • (S) CA

5

NFV

5a

Part

6 o/c

6a

Agent

7

OA X2

  • 9
  • 10

De

Vi

ringde blev

- -

upp-ringda

upp

OSS

av Nils

hemma.

hemma.

  • 1 1
  • 12
  • 13

Far

De

Vi

dôdades

gifte

kànner

sig aidrig.

honom inte.

under kriget.

Translations: I He hadn’t packed the bag yesterday. 2 Yesterday he hadn’t packed the bag. 3We will give Olle the gift tonight. 4Then they unfortunately got angry. Slwo policemen have already arrived. 6 and it is of course fun to play tennis. 7 Sten used to kiss us, Maja and me. 8 but Nils, he’s not stupid, him. 9 They rang us up at home. 10 We were rung up by Nils at home. 11 Father was killed during the war. 12They never married. 13 We don’t know him.

Key to table :

L(ink) = conjunction

X1 = extra position T(opic)

F(inite) V(erb)

duplicate elements in the sentence any sentence element verb carrying the tense

For details see section:

  • 12.5
  • 12.6
  • 12.8.1
  • 12.7.2

1 2

3 4 5 5a

6

6a 7

X1 T FV

(S) CA NFV Part

o/c

Agent OA

X2

S(ubject)

C(lausal) A(dverbial) N(on-) F(inite)V(erb) (Verb) Part(icle)

O(bject)/C(omplement)

Agent

O(ther) A(dverbials)

X2 - extra position

Sentences 2,4

Sentence 3

Sentences 5, 6

Sentences 7,8

Sentence 9

Sentence 10

Sentences 12, 13

includes reflexive pronoun, unstressed object 12.7.1

12.7.4 infinitive, supine or participle 12.7.3

only with separable compound verbs 12.7.7

includes real subject 12.7.6

only with passive verbs 12.7.8

manner, place, time, etc. 12.7.5

duplicates elements in the sentence, subject and object clauses and 12.6 non-finite clauses

  • 12.8.1
  • 12.7.6
  • 12.8.7
  • 12.6
  • 12.7.7
  • 12.7.8
  • 12.8.4
 
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