Encyclopedia of Cultivated Plants: From Acacia to Zinnia

PrefaceScopeAcknowledgmentsClassification and NomenclatureThe Origin and Evolution of PlantsThe Origin and Development of Plant CultivationThe Major Groups of Plants in this EncyclopediaEconomic, Social, and Religious Significance of PlantsThe Role of Plants in Human NutritionThe Biogeography of Cultivated PlantsThe Plant Scientists and HumanistsReferencesAcaciaUsefulness of AcaciaAgaveMagueyBlue AgaveAgeratumMedicinal Uses of Ageratum conyzoidesEffects of Ageratum on AgricultureAlfalfaAlmondAsia and the Mediterranean: The Homeland of the AlmondAloe VeraAmaranthAnemoneAniseAnise’s Culinary and Other UsesThe Medicinal Uses of AniseAppleApricotArrowrootArtichokeHistory of the ArtichokeCultivation of the ArtichokeArtichoke VarietiesAshThreats to the AshThe Many Uses of AshThe Ash in FolkloreThe Species of AshAsparagusAvocadoAzaleaBaby’s BreathBambooBananaBanana Varieties and the Quest for Disease ResistanceThe Business of BananasBarleyBarley in the AmericasBarley in the Modern WorldBasilBasil FolkloreTaxonomy of BasilBasic Biology of BasilUses of BasilChemicals Found in BasilBeansPhaseolus Beans in the Americas and BeyondOld World BeansBeetBegoniaBelladonnaBirchThreats to the BirchThe Many Uses of BirchBirch in FolkloreCommon Species of BirchBird of ParadiseBlackberryBlack-Eyed Susan (Rudbeckia)BladderwortBlueberryLowbush BlueberriesBotanical IllustrationThe Golden Age of Botanical IllustrationBougainvilleaBoysenberryHistory of the BoysenberryBoysenberry’s UsesThreats to BoysenberriesBreadfruitThe Cultural Significance of Breadfruit Is Seen in Its HistoryThe Breadfruit Tree Offers Much to the Land on Which It GrowsEating Preference for Breadfruit Varies among CulturesDiseases and Pests Can Affect BreadfruitBreadfruit Symbolizes the Lush Growth and Abundance of the TropicsBrierThe Genus RubusThe Genus SmilaxBroccoliBrussels SproutsBuckwheatBuckwheat Fit for Human and Animal ConsumptionOther Uses of BuckwheatButterburButterwortCabbageCommon CabbageChinese CabbageCacaoCacao Becomes a World CropCocoa and ChocolateCactusCalendulaCampanulaCannaCannabisCannabis as a DrugCanolaCantaloupeCarawayCardamomHistorical and Origin of CardamomCultivation of CardamomPharmacological Properties of CardamomCulinary and Other Features of CardamomCarnationCarrotCassavaCassava in the 21st CenturyCastor BeanCauliflowerCedarWestern Red CedarOther CedarsTrue CedarsCelandineCeleriacCeleryCultivation of CeleryCelery VarietiesCherrySweet and Sour CherriesBlack CherryFlowering CherryThe Nanking CherryChestnutChestnut BlightChickpeaChicoryChicory Roots as a Coffee SubstituteProduction of Inulin in Chicory RootsChrysanthemumCinchonaCinnamonCloverClovesCocaCocaineCockleburCoconutCoconut Agriculture and the Uses of the CoconutCoffeeCoffee in Tropical AmericaCoffee in the Twenty-First CenturyCoffee and HealthCollardColumbineAttributesCorchorusCorianderCornCorn before 1492Corn and the Columbian ExchangeToward a Science of CornCostmaryCottonCotton and LaborCottonwoodEastern CottonwoodBlack CottonwoodCottonwoods of Less RenownCowpeaCranberryCucumberCurrantZante CurrantsCurrant TomatoesWild CurrantCypressPractical Uses of CypressCypress’s Therapeutic PropertiesDaffodilDaffodils as Commercial CropsThe Daffodil in Art and CultureDahliaDaisy (Bellis)DandelionDandelion in the AmericasDate PalmDillEbonyEggplantCultivarsElderberryElderberry in History and FolkloreThe Significance of Elder and ElderberryElmDutch Elm DiseaseEndiveBelgian EndiveRadicchio and Leafy Green EndivesEucalyptusFennelFernFigFire LilyFlaxForget-Me-NotGarden AngelicaGarden CressGarlicGeraniumGerberaGingerGinkgo BilobaGinsengGladiolaGood King HenryGooseberryThe Gooseberry in the Old WorldThe Gooseberry in the New World and Its Current StatusGourdGrapefruitGrapesGuavaHazelMythology and Folklore of the HazelCultivation and Harvest of the HazelHibiscusHollyhocksHoneydewHoneysuckleJapanese HoneysuckleHopsHorseradishHorsetailHouseleekHyacinthHydrangeaImpatiensIndigoIrisHistory of the IrisThe Value of the IrisJasmineJuniperPinon-Juniper WoodlandsJuniper in the Twenty-First CenturyKaleKhatThe Economics of Khat ProductionKohlrabiKumquatLarkspurLarkspur FlowersLaurelBay LaurelMountain LaurelLavenderHistorical Use of LavenderLeekLemonLentilsLettuceLicoriceLilacThe Lilac BreedersLilyLily of the FieldName’s Origin, Myths, and Meaning of the LilyLimeLocustHoney Locust (Gleditsia tricanthos)Black Locust (Robinia pseudoaccacia)LotusLovageLupineMagnoliaClassification of the MagnoliasConservation Status of MagnoliasMahoganyMangoMangroveThe Mangroves of FloridaMapleMarigoldMarshmallowMasterwortMilletMillet DiseasesMintMistletoeMorning GloryMotherwortMulberryMulleinMushroomsMustardNasturtiumNectarineNutrients and WaterNettleNigellaNutmegNutmeg as DrugOakOatsOats in Antiquity and the Middle AgesOats in ModernityThe Fate of Oats in the New World and BeyondOats as FeedOats as FoodOil PalmPalm Oil in the 21st CenturyOkraOliveOnionOrangeOrange JuiceOrchidOreganoOregano Gains in PopularityCurrent Uses of OreganoPainted TonguePansyPapayaPapyrusParsleyParsnipInvasive Wild ParsnipPeachThe Nutrients and Water of the Peach TreePeanutPearPeasPeonyPepperForms of PepperOther Types of PepperPeppersPetuniaPhloxThere Is a Phlox Variety for Nearly Every GardenPhlox Is a Valuable Addition to All GardensPinePineapplePistachioBiology of the Pistachio TreeCommercial Pistachio ProductionHealth Effects of PistachiosAdditional Uses of the Pistachio TreePitcher PlantPlantainPlumPoinsettiaPomegranateThe Pomegranate in the Contemporary WorldPoppyPotatoThe Potato FaminePumpkinGiant PumpkinsPurslaneThe Invasive Nature of PurslaneQuinceQuinoaRadishRaffiaRaspberryRattanRedwoodRhubarbRiceRosebushRosemaryRosemary in Culinary and Other UsesRubberRubber and Its UsesRueRutabagaRyeSafflowerSageSagebrushSago PalmMetroxylon saguDeadly SagoThe Queen Sago PalmsSaint John’s WortSea BuckthornPlanting Sea Buckthorn ShrubsSea Buckthorn Products and UsesSesameShea TreeSnapdragonSorghumSouthernwoodHistory and OriginSoybeansSoybeans in AmericaGenetically Engineered SoybeansSpinachSpruceThe Multiple Uses of SpruceSquashStrawberrySugar BeetSugarcaneSugarcane in the New WorldSundewThe Diversity of SundewsSunflowerSweet FlagSweet PeaSweet PotatoSwiss ChardSycamore (American Sycamore)The American Sycamore HistoryThe Sycamore’s EnemiesTansyTaroThe Cultivation of Taro Passed from Country to Country as People Came to Depend on It as a FoodIn Antiquity, Hawaiians Placed the Value of Taro above Man, and Today, Taro Remains a Central Part of Hawaiian CultureTaro Has a Lot to Offer as a Food SourceTaro Has Been Used Medicinally and Has Also Contributed to Cultural ArtFrom Past to Present, Taro Represents Cultivation at Its FinestTeaTea and HealthTeakHistory of TeakTeak’s Natural EnemiesTeffThymeTimothyTobaccoTobacco and HealthTomatoThe Tomato in North AmericaThe Tomato PillThe Tomato in the Modern WorldTriticaleTulipThe Tulip in EuropeThe Netherlands and Tulip ManiaTurk’s Cap LilyTurnipVanillaVenus’s Fly TrapVerbenaParent Species of Verbena Have a Rich HistorySome Verbenas Are Important CommerciallyGarden Verbena Is Susceptible to the Usual Diseases and Pests of Cultivated FlowersVetchVioletWalnutAdditional Economic Uses of Walnut TreesWatercressWater LilyWatermelonOrigin and HistoryWheatWheat in the New WorldWheat in the Modern WorldHybrid WheatWhite BryonyWhite HorehoundWillowUses of the WillowThe Willow in LiteratureWintergreenA Cautionary NoteWormwoodThe Name Wormwood Is Associated with a Bitter TasteDespite a Difficult History, Wormwood Is Valued among Modern Herbalists and GardenersYamZinniaUtility of Zinnia
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