Factors Influencing Morale

Nature of work: Meaningful and satisfying job helps to improve employee morale. Morale tends to be low when the job provides no challenge and satisfaction and job standards are considered very high.

Working condition: Physical work environment, job security, wages and other allied factors exercise a significant influence on employee morale.

Supervision: Competent, dependable and fair-minded leadership can build and maintain high morale.

Management policies: The policies and attitudes of management concerning, promotion, transfer etc. affect morale.

Personal factors: The age, education, occupation level and family life of an employee, determine his morale.

Measures for Building High Morale

Morale building is a difficult exercise as it involves removing misconception, changing attitudes and dealing with emotions. The following measures may be helpful in improving employee morale:

• Proper working condition.

• Job security.

• Sound compensation system.

• Sound promotion policy.

• Job enrichment.

• Sound procedure of employee grievances.

• Worker's participation in management.

Methods of Measuring Morale

Morale is an intangible and subjective concept. The following methods are used to measure morale:

• Observation

• Attitude or morale survey

1. Interview method

2. Questionnaire method.

• Company records and reports.

Morale building is a difficult exercise as it involves removing misconception, changing attitudes and dealing with emotions. The following measures may be helpful in improving employee morale:

• Proper working condition.

• Job security.

• Sound compensation system.

• Sound promotion policy.

• Job enrichment.

• Sound procedure of employee grievances.

• Worker's participation in management.

Motivation is a Latin word, which means to move.

It is the willingness of an individual to respond to organizational requirements. Koontz O'Donnell defines it as " a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs wishes and similar forces that induce an individual or a group of people at work."

What is motivation?

It can also be defined as "a willingness to expend energy to achieve a goal or a reward. It is a force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of people. It is the function that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organization."

Performance = Ability x Motivation

Motivation is a process which starts with a physiological or psychological deficiency or need that activates or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive. Needs are created when there is a deprivation or deficiency. Here, a physiological or psychological imbalance exists.

Drives or motives: Drives are deficiencies with direction. They are action oriented and provide a thrust towards achieving an incentive or goal.

Incentive or goal: Attaining an incentive will restore the balance. After achieving the goal, needs and drives will be reduced.

Nature/characteristics of motivation

Unending process: Human wants keep changing and increasing.

A psychological concept: Deals with the human mind.

Whole individual is motivated: As it is based on psychology of the individual.

Motivation may be financial or non-financial: Financial includes increasing wages,

allowance, bonus, perquisites etc.

Motivation can be positive or negative: Positive motivation means use of incentives -financial or non-financial. Examples of positive motivation: confirmation, pay rise, praise etc. Negative motivation means emphasizing penalties. It is based on force of fear. Example: demotion, termination.

Motivation and job satisfaction are different. Motivation is goal-oriented behaviour. Job satisfaction is the outcome of job performance.

Classification of motivation

• Positive and negative.

• Financial and non-financial.

• Extrinsic and intrinsic.

• Extrinsic motivation is available only after completion of the job. For example, increase in wages, rest periods, holidays etc.

• Intrinsic motivation is available at the time of performance of a job. Example: praise, recognition, delegation of authority and responsibility.

What are motives?

A motive is an inner state that energizes, activates, or moves and directs, channels behaviour towards goals.

Classification of motives

Motives can be classified as:

• Primary motives

• General motives

• Secondary motives.

Primary motives

Also called physiological/biological/unlearned motives. Two criteria for the motive to be primary are that they should be unlearned and physiological.

Example: hunger, thirst, sleep, avoidance of pain, sex and material concern. Primary motives tend to reduce the tension or stimulation.

General motives

Are ones which are unlearned but are not physiologically based. These needs induce the person to increase the amount of stimulation.

Example: curiosity, manipulation, activity & affection

Secondary motives:

These are the most important w.r.t. the study of O.B. A motive must be learned in order to be a secondary one.

These drives are closely tied to the learning concepts, such as motives for power, achievement, affiliation referred to as n Pow, n Ach, n Aff. Security and status are also secondary motives.

Examples of key secondary needs

Need for Achievement

• Doing better than competitors

• Attaining a difficult goal

• Solving a complex problem

Need for power:

• Controlling people and activities

• Being in a position of authority over others

• Defeating an opponent

Need for affiliation:

• Being liked by many people

• Working with people who are friendly and co-operative

• Participating in pleasant social activities

Need for security:

• Having a secure job

• Having protection against illness and disability

• Avoiding tasks or decision with a risk of failure and blame

Need for status:

• Working for the right company in the right job

• Having a degree from the right university

• Having the right privileges.

 
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