Routledge Handbook of Tourism in Africa

Tourism in Africa - continental issues and regional contextsIntroductionTourism and development - theoretical perspectives and outstanding issuesCritical perspectives and tourismAlternative perspectives and tourismNeoliberal perspective and tourismPost-development and tourismThe current state of tourism and development (research) in AfricaConclusionReferencesI Africa and tourismThe changing nature of Africa as a competitive tourism role-playerIntroductionInbound tourism to AfricaCurrent situationWhat drives international tourism to Africa?What does it imply for the future?Intra-African tourismCurrent situationWhat drives tourism between Africa countries?What does it imply for the future?Outbound African tourismCurrent situationWhat drives African outbound tourism?What does it imply for the future?Challenges for the futureConclusionNotesReferencesInformation communication technology (ICT) and tourism promotion in AfricaIntroductionICT and tourism nexusICT potential for Africa's tourism promotionCritical issues facing the adoption of ICT in the tourism sectorLaying out the challengeAreas in need of research attentionConclusionReferencesHeritage and heritage tourism in Africa: Historical overview and contemporary issuesIntroductionDevelopment and treatment of heritage for tourism in Africa: historic outlookPost-independence periodCurrent dilemma in the maintenance of heritage for tourismMarginalisation of African heritage and traditions in heritage tourismMistreatment of African heritage for tourism purposesMarginalisation of local communities in the maintenance of heritage tourism sitesAmbiguities in the promotion of heritage tourism as a sustainable development optionConclusionReferencesAdventure tourism in AfricaIntroductionAdventure tourism development in AfricaA typology of adventure tourism in AfricaCritical issues facing adventure tourism in AfricaConclusionsReferencesTourism and dimate change in AfricaIntroductionGeographical distribution of Africa's nature-based tourism attractions and related climate change impactsCoastal zones and freshwater ecosystemsVegetation, wildlife, protected areas and mountainous placesResponses: climate change adaptation and mitigationReview protocol: methodsFindingsTourism-climate change nexus research in AfricaVulnerabilities and threatsImpactsPerceptions and awareness of climate change impact on tourismKnowledge inquiry and methodological issuesPolicy responsesEndangered tourism destinations and associated climate change impactsClimate change policy responses in the tourism contextDiscussion and conclusionsReferencesGrowing Africa's tourism through air transport liberalisation Continental aspirations and key policy bottlenecksIntroductionMajor constraints to Africa's tourism growth: the air transport dimensionOverview of Africa's air transportation performanceAn undying aspiration to liberalise Africa's air transportationDrawbacks to the liberalisation of Africa's air transportation: the policy dimensionConclusionsNoteReferencesInFocus 1 The role of the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) in tourism and sustainable development in AfricaThe role of UNWTO in tourismSustainable tourism development in AfricaUNWTO agenda for Africa 2030 - tourism for inclusive growthAdvocating the brand Africa - SDGs 8, 10, 11, 14, 15Promoting travel facilitation (connectivity/visa) - SDGs 8, 9Strengthening tourism statistics systems - SDGs 8, 15, 17Expanding of capacity building including training facilities - SDGs 4, 8, 10, 17Promoting innovation and technology - SDGs 8, 9, 17Fostering resilience (safety and security, crisis communication) - SDGs 8, 12, 13,16Unlocking growth through investment promotion by publicprivate partnerships - SDGs 8, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 17Empowering youth and women through tourism - SDGs 5, 8, 10Advancing the sustainability agenda (esp. biodiversity) - SDGs 13, 12, 14, 15Promoting cultural heritage - SDGs 8, 16Policy frameworksBibliography and online linksInFocus 2 The growth of Meetings, incentive, conferences and exhibition/ events (MICE) industry in AfricaII Tourism in North AfricaTunisian tourism, gender and the contribution of postcolonial feminismIntroductionTourism and other womenPostcolonial feminismPostcolonial feminism and tourism studiesIllustration: a postcolonial feminist interpretation of Tunisian tourismConclusionReferencesUnderstanding the complexities of residents' support for cultural heritage preservation through an equity theory lens The case of World Heritage Sites of Carthage, TunisiaIntroductionLiterature reviewLocal residents' support for cultural heritage preservationTheory of equity and cultural heritage contextMethodsStudy contextData collection, sampling, and analysisResultsThe history of social class discrimination in CarthagePower relations and authorityPerceiving (in) equity and support for cultural heritage preservationDiscussion and conclusionReferencesCurrent issues of tourism in MoroccoIntroductionPhases of tourism in MoroccoPre-Fordist and Fordist phasePost-fordist phase: the strategic plans of Vision 2010 and Vision 2020Saidia: case study of Azur PlanConclusionsNotesReferencesTourism in Egypt: The past and the presentIntroductionThe evolution of tourism in EgyptThe types of tourism in EgyptThe importance of tourism in EgyptThe growth of mass tourism in Egypt: the role of Thomas Cook & SonConclusionReferencesInFocus 3 The role of the media in promoting tourism in AfricaIII Tourism in West Africa"Today is party A, tomorrow is party B": The Elmina 2015 Strategy and the politics of tourism-led local economic development planning in GhanaIntroductionTourism, local economic development and political cyclesMethodology and methodsA stylised (tourism development) history of ElminaElmina Cultural Heritage Management Programme and the Elmina 2015 StrategyLocal governance structures and political cyclesEra of the National Democratic Congress Party: 1992-2000Era of the New Patriotic Party: 2001-2008Era of the National Democratic Congress: 2009-2016ConclusionNoteReferencesTourism development in Senegal: Historical overview and new directions for community-based tourismIntroductionOverview of tourism productsEvolution of tourism development in SenegalBefore the 1970s: the embryonic stages and 1980s: responding to a global demand for mass tourism-2000: slow growth amid socio-political crisis-2010: expansion of the tourism sector- to date: from stagnation to impeding declineCommunity-based tourism, a counter model of developmentIntegrated rural tourism: the beginnings of community-based tourism in SenegalCritical issues for community-based tourism around national parksConclusionsNotesReferencesThe political economy of tourism development in Cape Verde islandsIntroductionLiterature reviewPolitical economy, tourism development and trust in tourism institutionsBenefits and costs of tourism development and trust in tourism institutionsThe state of the local economy, tourism development and political trust in tourism institutionsPersonal economic benefits of tourism, tourism development and political trust in tourism institutionsMethodologyStudy settingQuestionnaire design and data collection proceduresResultsDemographic profileHypotheses testingConclusions and implicationsPractical implicationsStudy limitation and future study directionReferencesBackpacking in Ghana: Prospects and challengesIntroductionGeographical features of GhanaGhana's tourism development pathwayPre-independence era (before 1957)Era of state activism (1957-1966)Era of state passivism (1966-1981)Era of laissez-fairism (1982-2001)The era of democratic consolidation of tourism development (2001-2019)Travel market trends in GhanaTourist arrivals, receipts and contribution to GDPTourist originating countriesPurpose of visitDomestic and outbound tourismThe backpacker segment in Ghana - characteristics, motivations, experiences and risk perceptionsCharacteristics of backpackersMotivations and experiencesRisk perceptionsA critical reflection on the prospects and challenges of backpacker tourism in GhanaConcluding remarks and recommendationsReferencesDrivers and opportunities in Nigeria's tourism industry: Towards sustainable growth and developmentIntroductionBackground to Nigeria's tourism industryTourism management in NigeriaTourism resources and assets in NigeriaContribution of tourism to the Nigerian economyChallenges inhibiting growth in Nigeria's tourism industryDrivers and opportunitiesTourism and sustainability in NigeriaThe way forwardReferencesTourism development in Niger: Challenges and opportunitiesIntroductionLocation and tourism attractionsA historical narrative on tourism in NigerComposition of the tourism market in NigerConstraints and challengesOpportunitiesConclusionBibliographyTourism development in Sierra LeoneBrief background and macroeconomic trendsCurrent tourism trendsTourist attractions and regional competitive advantagePolitical risk and imageWeak institutional frameworksImprovement of institutional capacity in policy development and planningImproving the poor image through proactive marketing planning utilizing International and Regional partnershipsSierra Leone National Tourist BoardAddressing the critical capacity shortages of human development in the various sectors within the industryEncouragement and promotion of domestic tourismFurther suggestionsSummary and conclusionsReferencesInFocus 4 Afrogallonism, yellow brick road and 360La - grassroot contemporary arts in motionInFocus 5 Aviators Africa Academy (AAA) -capacity development in Africa's aviation industryIV Tourism in Middle AfricaEco-tourism in Cameroon's protected areas: Investigating the link between community participation and policy developmentIntroductionLiterature reviewDevelopment of tourism policy in CameroonProtected areas, eco-tourism and community participationCommunity participation and policy developmentStudy settingMethodologyResults and discussionProtected area dynamicsAccess to resources vs. conservation of resourcesDisinterest and discontent of communitiesWaning trust in governmentCommunity involvement, participation and collaborative planningReality vs. theory of policyImportance of community involvement in eco-tourism related activitiesCollaborative planning and managementAn opportunity... (lost)Lack of benefits to communitiesEco-tourism benefiting natural environmentsEco-tourism revenueMoney matters and community upliftmentConclusion and recommendationsReferencesTourism development in Gabon: Pioneers operating under adverse conditionsIntroductionDevelopment of tourism in GabonTourism trendsOperating pioneering businesses in adverse conditionsTypology of tourism projects and businesses undertaken since the 1990sProjects responding to a dynamic not centered on tourismProjects driven by tourism interestsConclusionsNotesReferencesTourism and nature in Sao Tomé and Príncipe: Opportunities for the internationalisation of a Small Island StateIntroductory and contextual issuesBrief characterisation of an archipelago open to the worldA picture of tourism internationalisation for sustainabilityConcluding notesNotesReferencesInFocus 6 Diary of a woman in tourismChallenges and opportunities and expected impactReferencesV Tourism in Eastern AfricaThe potential of tourism revenue sharing policy to benefit conservation in RwandaIntroductionSustainable livelihoods frameworkCapability to maintain livelihoodsEquitable access to livelihoods resourcesSocial and environmental sustainability of livelihoodsRwanda's tourism revenue sharing programSynthesizing Rwanda's tourism revenue sharing policyRwanda's TRS policy and livelihoods capabilityRwanda's TRS policy and equitable livelihoodsRwanda's TRS policy and livelihoods sustainabilityConclusionReferencesRock art tourism in Ethiopia and cultural heritage management challengesIntroductionLiterature reviewOverview of cultural heritage managementCultural heritage management and tourism in EthiopiaRock art tourism in AfricaGeneral discussionRock art tourism in Ethiopia: potentials and challengesCultural heritage management challenges and rock art tourism in EthiopiaConclusionReferencesTourism in Mozambique: Historical evolution and future challengesIntroductionBrief characterization of the countryHistorical evolution of tourismCharacterization of tourism in MozambiqueTourism challenges and lessons for the futureSafety and securityTourism performanceCompetitiveness of the sectorRecovery marketingConclusionsNotesReferencesDevelopment of tourism in Tanzania: Strengthening agriculture - tourism linkagesIntroductionDevelopment of tourism in Tanzania: the historical perspectivesTourism trends in Tanzania: from 1950 to 2016Strengthening agriculture-tourism linkages: a strategy to enhance sustainable tourism in TanzaniaConclusionsReferencesLocal community support in tourism in Mauritius - the case of Ray of Light by LUX*IntroductionTourism impactsLocal community supportResponsible business: stakeholders' expectationsLUX* 'Ray of Light' CSR initiativeImplications and conclusionReferencesPastoral women participation in community conservancies in Maasai Mara, KenyaIntroductionConservancies in Maasai MaraCommunity benefits from conservanciesWomen involvement in conservationMotivations for women involvement in community conservanciesRoles played by women in community conservanciesLinks for participationConclusionReferencesInFocus 7 Red Rocks Initiatives for Sustainable DevelopmentVI Tourism in Southern AfricaCity tourism in Southern Africa Progress and issuesIntroductionKey research foci in city tourism researchExploring six themes in city tourism researchConclusionsAcknowledgementReferencesWildlife tourism, conservation and community benefits in ZimbabweIntroductionMethodsResults and discussionDevelopment of wildlife tourism in ZimbabweTourism trendsGlobal travel and tourism trendsRegional tourism trendsZimbabwe tourism trendsWildlife tourism's contribution to conservation and community developmentThe impact of wildlife tourism on conservationThe impact of wildlife tourism on community developmentFramework for wildlife tourism, conservation and community benefitsChallenges associated with wildlife tourism, conservation and community developmentConclusion and the way forwardReferencesInFocus 8 South African Airways and corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiativesSouth African Airways (UK&I)ReferencesInFocus 9 Hatika Adult Education Centre supports community tourism development in Windhoek, NamibiaInFocus 10 The future of tourism in Africa -keeping more tourism spend in destinations for sustainable tourism development through digitalised marketingThe History of Tourism in AfricaTourism todayTourism in AfricaThe future of tourism in Africa and third-party vendorsThe monopolisation of consumer-focused productsFuture of tourism in Africa and sustainable hospitalityRainmaker digital's MissionWhat has been achieved in other Africa destinationsVISTA destination network open platform and ecosystem for destinationsIntegrated and interdependent 5 stages of successStage 1 | visibility - get found in the first place | dreaming, planningTravellers no longer believe "Still Images"Achievements (2016-2019)Stage 2 | digital presence WebSite - convert bookings and create leads | dreaming, planning, bookingAchievements 2016-2019Stage 3 | reputation - understand where to improve and respond to your reviews | dreaming, planningAchievements (2016-2019)Stage 4 | marketing communication - content-, social- and eMail marketing | dreaming, planning, sharingStage 5 | distribution - revenue and yield management | planning, bookingProspects and futures for tourism in AfricaI: Africa and tourismII: tourism in North AfricaIII: tourism in West AfricaIV: tourism in Middle AfricaV: tourism in Eastern AfricaVI: tourism in Southern AfricaConclusionReferences
Next >